Translation is the name used to designate the protein synthesis process. It occurs in the cytoplasm with the participation, among others, of RNA and amino acids.
Who participates in protein synthesis?
Cistron (gene) is the segment of DNA that contains the information for the synthesis of a polypeptide or protein. The produced RNA that contains a transcribed nitrogenous base sequence of DNA is a messenger RNA.
In cytoplasm, it will be one of the participating components of protein synthesis, along with two other types of RNA, all single stranded and produced according to the same process as described for messenger RNA:
Ribosomal RNA, rRNA. When associated with proteins, the rRNA strands will form the ribosomes, organs responsible for reading the message contained in the messenger RNA;
Carrier RNAs, tRNA. So called because they will be responsible for transporting amino acids to the site where protein synthesis will take place next to ribosomes. They are small single stranded RNA molecules each containing about 75 to 85 nucleotides. Each tRNA strand is twisted about itself, acquiring the aspect seen in the figure below.
Two regions stand out in each transporter: one is where the amino acid to be transported will be attached, and the other corresponds to the complementary trio of bases (called the anti-codon) of the tRNA, which will fit into the corresponding codon of the mRNA.
Anticodon is the tRNA base trio, complementary to the mRNA codon.