Stroke, popularly known as stroke, can be of two types:
- ischemic stroke - lack of circulation in an area of the brain caused by obstruction of one or more arteries by atheroma, thrombosis or embolism. It usually occurs in older people with diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, vascular problems, and smokers.
- hemorrhagic stroke - brain bleeding caused by a ruptured artery or blood vessel due to high blood pressure, problems with blood clotting, trauma. It can occur in younger people and the evolution is more severe.
- ischemic stroke
· Sudden loss of muscle strength and / or vision
· Difficulty in oral communication
Tingling on one side of the body
· Memory changes
Sometimes these symptoms may be transient - transient ischemic attack (TIA). They do not cease to demand immediate medical attention.
- hemorrhagic stroke
· Cerebral edema
· Increased intracranial pressure
· Nausea and vomiting
· Neurological deficits similar to those caused by ischemic stroke
Stroke is a medical emergency. The patient should be referred immediately to hospital care. Thrombolytics and anticoagulants may decrease the extent of damage. Surgery may be indicated to remove the clot or plunger (endarterectomy), relieve brain pressure or revascularize compromised veins or arteries.
Unfortunately, brain cells do not regenerate and there is no treatment that can recover them. However, there are therapeutic resources that can help restore function, movement, and speech, and the sooner they begin to be applied, the better the results.
- Control blood pressure and blood sugar level. Hypertensive and diabetic patients require treatment and need permanent medical follow-up. People with normal blood pressure and blood glucose rarely have strokes;
- Try to keep the total cholesterol level below 200. Sometimes this balance can only be achieved with medicines. Do not take them or stop taking them on your own. Always listen to the advice of a doctor;
- Adopt a balanced diet by reducing the amount of sugar, fat, salt and alcoholic beverages;
- Do not smoke. Cigarette smoking has been proven to be a high risk factor for stroke;
- Establish a regular exercise program. Take 30-minute walks daily;
- Tell your doctor if your family has heart and neurological diseases such as stroke;
- Try to be distracted to reduce the stress level. Meet friends, participate in cultural, community activities, etc.
The risk factors for stroke are the same as those that cause heart attacks:
- arterial hypertension
- high cholesterol
- family history
- alcohol intake
- sedentary life