Parkinson's disease is a disorder of the central nervous system that primarily affects the motor system.
It is one of the most common neurological conditions and its cause remains unknown. Available statistics show that the prevalence of Parkinson's disease in the population is 150 to 200 cases per 100,000 inhabitants and each year 20 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants appear.
The most common motor symptoms are: tremor, muscle stiffness, akinesia and postural changes. However, non-motor manifestations may also occur, such as memory impairment, depression, sleep disorders and autonomic nervous system disorders.
Parkinson's disease is a chronic condition. Symptom evolution is usually slow but varies in each case. Parkinson's disease is the most common form of parkinsonism. The term parkinsonism refers to a group of diseases that can have various causes and that share the symptoms described above in varying combinations, whether or not associated with other neurological manifestations. Parkinson's disease is also called primary parkinsonism because it is a disease for which no known cause has been identified. On the other hand, a parkinsonism is said to be secondary in those cases where a cause can be identified. About 75% of all forms of parkinsonism correspond to the primary form.