Articles

Respiratory System Disorders


Sinusitis is a inflammation of cavities in the bones of the face, the sinus of the face or sinus. These cavities have communication with the nasal passages and can be invaded by bacteria, which trigger an infectious process. In acute sinusitis, the person has pain in various regions of the face and there is mucous and sometimes purulent nasal discharge (with pus).

The common cold can be caused by many types of viruses and is most conducive in winter, when the body's cells become more susceptible to infections. The viruses settle in the nasal cavity and pharynx cells, causing inflammation. A runny nose (fluid flowing through the nostrils during the cold) is a consequence of these inflammations.

In addition to the runny nose, other symptoms may appear, such as a feeling of dry throat, sneezing, watery eyes and fever.

It is one of the most famous childhood diseases caused by the bacterium. Haemophilus pertussi, which settles in the airway mucosa (larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles).

Bacterial proliferation causes strong irritation, with large mucus (phlegm) production. Toxins produced by bacteria irritate nerve endings, triggering coughing bouts typical of the disease.

Pertussis is prevented by triple vaccine, which also protects against diphtheria and tetanus. This vaccine is given in three doses, one every thirty days from the second month of life.

Pneumonia is a pulmonary infection caused by various species of bacteria and sometimes by fungus. The bacterium settles in the lungs, causing increased mucus secretion and rupture of the alveoli walls. Symptoms of the disease are high fever, shortness of breath, chest pain, and sputum that is sometimes bloody. It usually strikes people who are weakened with their organic resistance.

Tuberculosis is an infection caused by bacteria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis which usually settles in the lungs. Pulmonary alveoli become inflamed and suffer necrosis (cell death). The necrotic region is surrounded by fibrous tissue that limits and isolates the infectious focus. In general, lesions of a first tuberculous infection regress spontaneously. In the case of reinfection, infectious foci may occur in addition to the lungs, other organs, causing tissue damage.

Symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis are fever, night sweats, weakness and loss of appetite and weight.

The prevention is to avoid living with sick people and only consume pasteurized or properly boiled milk, as the bacteria may be present in the milk. The treatment is done with antibiotics.

Over 75% of chronic bronchitis patients are or have been smokers. The bronchioles secrete excess mucus, becoming compressed and inflamed. The eyelashes of the bronchiolar epithelium stop beating, and mucus and dirt particles accumulate, making it difficult for air to pass through. Breathing becomes short and coughing fits are constant. People with chronic bronchitis usually develop emphysema.