Glossary - Letter C (part 2)

Cilliophora - ciliates; class of protozoa whose representatives move through eyelashes.

Kinetochore - See centromere.

Cissiparity - Or binary division; asexual reproduction in which unicellular organisms reproduce by simply dividing the cell.

Citron - See genes.

Cytokinesis - Division of cytoplasm that occurs after karyokinesis and completes the process of cell division.

Cytochromes - protein containing heme (pigment); functions as an electron carrier in an electron transport chain; is implicated in cellular respiration and photosynthesis.

Cytopharynx - Narrow place where food can pass through unicellular beings.

Cytopigean - Or cytoprocyte; Cell site of certain types of protozoa through which waste from the digestive process is eliminated.

Cytoplasm - Region of the cell where the organelles are located; The fluid present there is hyaloplasma.

Cytostome - Present opening in the cell of certain types of protozoa through which food is eaten.

Chlamydiae - Very small bacteria presenting as obligate intracellular parasites.

Chasmatosis - Same as chasmocytosis. Elimination of digestive remains by the cell by fusing the residual vacuole with the plasma membrane.

Chasmocytosis - See clasmatosis.

Climax - - complex of more or less stable plant formations over a long time, under conditions of natural evolution. It is said to be in equilibrium when the changes it presents do not imply major disruptions in the scheme of distribution of energy and materials between their living components. It may also be the last biological community at which ecological succession ends, that is, the stable community, which no longer undergoes directional changes.
Cleavage - Or segmentation; each of the first divisions that occur in the egg; early stages of embryonic development.

Chlorophyll - pigment in plants of chemical structure similar to hemoglobin of mammalian blood, soluble in organic solvents. Captures solar energy for photosynthesis.
Chloroplasts - See Plasto and Chlorophyll.

Mulch - Natural layer of plant residues scattered on the soil surface to retain moisture, protect it from sunstroke and the impact of rainfall.

Co-dominant - Or without dominance. Term that defines the behavior of a gene that in homozygosis manifests freely but in heterozygosis divides or combines its characteristics with its different pair.

Coenzyme - Organic molecule that plays an accessory role in enzyme catalyzed processes; often functions as a donor or acceptor of a substance involved in the reaction; NAD, NADP, and FAD are common coenzymes.

Collagen - Fibrous proteinaceous material in bones, tendons and other connective tissues.

Collenchyma - Plant support tissue, formed by elongated and living cells (collenchymatic fibers); the walls of these cells have additional cellulose reinforcements (see sclerenchyma).

Golgi Complex - Cell organoid from smooth endoplasmic reticulum. It presents as a set of flat and overlapping vesicles, irregularly distributed in the cellular cytoplasm.

Connective - Part of the stamen that connects the anther to the fillet in the androceu of angiosperm flowers.

Conjugation - Sexual process in which there is temporary union of two individuals, with exchange of genetic material.

Cormophyte - See tracheophyte.

Corolla (From Latin: Corolla, dim. in corona, crown) - Set of petals; usually the manifestly colored part of the flower. It is associated with the protection of the reproductive part of the flower and is also a major attraction for pollinating agents.

Cotyledon (From Greek: kotyedoncup-shaped cavity) Leaf-like structure in the embryo of a seminiferous plant; relates to the digestion and storage of food that will nourish the plant embryo in the early stages of life.

Crick - Francis Crick. See Watson, James.

Chrysaphites - Same as chrysotiles. Simple protist algae with pigments such as carotene and xanthophyll. They are predominantly marine, being part of plankton.

Chromatid - Each of the two chromosomal filaments that are held together by the centromere after chromosomal duplication; once separated into anaphase, each chromid becomes a chromosome.

Chromatin - Filamentous material, very colorable, present in the nucleus of cells; corresponds to the set of deconcentrated chromosomes present in the interphase cell.

Chromatophores - Pigmented cell present on the body surface of certain invertebrate animals (molluscs, crustaceans etc.) and certain vertebrates (fish, amphibians etc.); By spreading or concentrating the pigment grains in the chromatophores, the animal varies its color and hue, being confused with the environment.

Chromonema - DNA strand, unspiral that forms chromatin.

Chromoplasts - Plastids with colored pigments. Ex. Chloroplasts, xantoplasts, erythroplasts, etc.

Chromosomes - Each of the filaments present in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, consisting basically of DNA and proteins; in it lie the genes.