Glossary - Letter E

AND - Vitamin E or tocopherol. Fat-soluble vitamin that fights sterility and is antioxidant. Main sources: lettuce, corn and peanuts.

Ecology - science that studies the relationship of living beings with each other and with the physical environment. Word from Greek: oikos = house, dwelling + logos = study.
Ecosystem - Integrated set of physical, chemical and biotic factors that characterize a particular place, extending over a certain space of varying dimensions. It can also be an ecological unit consisting of the meeting of the abiotic environment (non-living components) with the community, in which matter and energy exchange occur. Ecosystems are the small functional units of life.
Ecotype - races of the same species which differ only in certain morphological characters and which are adapted to local conditions.
Ectoplasm - Outer part of the cytoplasm. Also known as cytoplasm gel for being denser (gelatinous).

Edwards - See Edward syndrome

Cumulative effect - Phenomenon that occurs with insecticides and radioactive compounds that focus on terminal organisms in the food chain, such as humans.
Efferent - The one who leaves. Nerves that carry CNS nerve impulses are called efferent nerves, for example. See also afferent.

Chemosynthetic Elements - Structures or substances involved in photosynthesis. It may refer to either chloroplasts or chlorophyll granules or tilacoids.

Endocytosis - Substance entry into a cell by active transport

Endoskeleton - Internal skeleton. Like the bone skeleton in animals

Activation Energy - Minimum amount of energy for a chemical reaction to occur.

Cell Wrap - Same as cytoplasmic membrane or plasmalema

Nuclear Wrap - Nuclear membrane or library. It envelops and protects the nuclear material of the cell. It is also responsible for the nucleus exchanges with the cytoplasm.

Epiphytes - plants that grow attached to other plants, such as orchids, mosses, lichens, bromeliads, etc.
Ergastoplasma - See Endoplasmic Reticulum.

Sclerenchyma - Plant support tissue, formed by elongated and dead cells (sclerenchymatic fibers); the walls of these cells are formed by lignin-impregnated cellulose (see collenchyma)

Scurvy - Disease caused by vitamin C deficiency, with the appearance of lesions of the intestinal mucosa, with digestive bleeding, redness of the gums that bleed easily and weakening of the teeth.

Pioneer Species - plant species that initiates the occupation of uninhabited areas of plants due to human action or natural forces.

Sperm - Vegetable that forms seed. They divide into angiosperms and gminosperms..

Sperm - haploid cell, mobile (flagellated) for reproduction in animals.

Spike -Skeletal, calcareous or silicose element present in certain sponges.

Spirochete Spiral-shaped bacterium species

Spores - Genetic name of a reproductive cell that can remain dormant for a long time until it finds conditions to develop, present in certain bacteria, algae, fungi and plants.

Sporulation - Spore-producing phenomenon.

Stamen - (From Latin: a filament) The male organ of a flower; produces microspores or pollen grains; It usually consists of a filament that has at its apex an anther. (see androceu).

Stigma -The upper portion of the stylus, usually dilated and sticky, where the pollen grains that will fertilize the flower adhere.

Stylus - Tubular portion of the carpel (or pistil). Elongated part of the carpel leading the pollen tube in the fertilization process of the vegetable.

Stomata - Structure present in the epidermis of the leaves, formed by arched cells (stoma cells), having a hole between them (ostiole) through which gas exchange occurs.

Eucharion - Or eukaryote; cell type that has membranous systems and organelles in the cytoplasm; the library is present, delimiting the nucleus, where the chromosomes are located (see also prokaryote)

Euglena - Species of algae from the euglenophyte group. The best known is Eugleunia viridis which has two flagella and has a contractile vacuole.

Exocytosis - Substance output from the cell.

Exoskeleton - Skeleton that covers the body from the outside; common in arthropods.