The body of most angiosperm plants is divided into two main parts, one located under the ground, consisting of the roots, and another area consisting of stalk, sheets, flowers and fruits.
Root cells, as well as stem cells, do not photosynthesize and therefore depend on the food produced in the leaf cells. The stem, leaves, flowers and fruits, in turn, depend on the water and mineral salts absorbed by the roots.
Almost always the root originates from the embryo radicle, located in the seed.
From it arise secondary branches. However, roots often arise from stems and even leaves. These roots known as adventitious (from Latin warns = coming from outside, born outside the usual place), are common, for example, at the base of a cornstalk.
The roots are widely distributed in the soil, but there are some plants that have aerial roots, common in vines, bromeliads, orchids, while others have submerged roots, like water hyacinths, common in dams.
We have two basic types of root system: the pivotal, where there is a main root, and the fascinatedwhere the root branches are equivalent in size and appearance and do not have a main root.