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Part 4 Plants for Horticultural Applications - Biology

Part 4 Plants for Horticultural Applications - Biology


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Part 4 Plants for Horticultural Applications

College of Agriculture & Natural Resources Department of Horticulture

Horticulture is the science and art of the development, sustainable production, marketing and use of high-value, intensively cultivated food and ornamental plants.

Horticultural crops are diverse, including:

  • Annual and perennial species,
  • Fruits and vegetables,
  • Decorative indoor plants and
  • Landscape plants.

Horticulture also contributes to quality of life, and the beauty, sustainability and rehabilitation of our environment and the human condition.

Plants, crops and green spaces sustain and enrich our lives by providing nutritious food, enhancing the beauty of our homes and communities and reducing our carbon footprint.

Horticulture & Green Careers

Practitioners of horticulture are as diverse as the crops that make up the industry and the discipline. They include a wide array of individuals and groups who farm, landscape, garden, research, advise and enjoy the bounty of horticultural plants for their nourishment, health benefits and aesthetics.

Michigan is among the top 10 states in terms of employment in the green industry.

Michigan ranks third in floriculture/greenhouse production in the United States, with wholesale crops valued at over $400 million. Plant bedding/annual garden plants account for over half of those sales &ndash leading the U.S.

Environmental horticulture provides a range of green career paths including in greenhouse production, wholesale brokers, commercial nurseries, garden centers, florists and landscape design and construction firms. There are also green jobs in private and community gardens, municipal parks and state or national reserves.

The Student Horticulture Association is an opportunity for students to connect, network and get involved on campus.

Why Study Horticulture at MSU?

The Department of Horticulture at MSU is dedicated to providing the highest-quality education and is one of the largest horticulture programs in the U.S. It offers:

As the nation&rsquos first Horticulture Department, we are proud to maintain a tradition of excellence spanning more than 150 years. See why our students love horticulture and love studying it at MSU!

In addition, MSU has a very active Student Horticulture Association club that allows YOU to get involved in many aspects of horticulture while having fun.


Applications of RAPD Marker in Plants | Genetics

In this article we will discuss about the applications of RAPD marker in plants. Also learn about its demerits.

1. RAPD is used to distinguish between variety is based on difference in DNA sequence. RAPD have been used to identify nearly 15 commercial sunflower varieties. The new bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris) which are difficult to distinguish based on mor­phological trait have been used as ideal candidate for the application of RAPD marker methods when DNA was extracted from each varieties. The 12 samples were analysed using 60 primers.

This produced 296 markers and that could be scored. Al­most 85% similarity was predicted. For example, DNA from plant allows the ampli­fication of sequences a, c, d but not b. This indicates that in plant 1, primer sites for the primers used not found at sequence b. Similarly, a DNA sequence alternation at one of the primer binding site (priming) for a sequence ‘a’ has prevent it from being amplified when DNA from plant 2 is used.

RAPD have been extensively used for number of horticultural crops in variety iden­tification, genetic purity and sex determination. A specific RAPD marker has been used to select for high and low β-glucan content between barley varieties.

2. RAPD markers are employed in the construction of genetic maps. Genetic maps of several plants including model plant Arabidopsis and tobacco have been constructed. RAPD markers have been used to construct 15 linkage groups in coffee. Both genomic and chloroplast DNA provided the source of probes.

RAPD markers are used for the selection of segregating populations more or less indirectly, during plant breeding. These markers also accelerate back crossing process and allow the selection of individually with more of recurrent genome at each generation facilitate breeding programme to be completed within few generations.

3. RAPD molecular marker used in the direct selection of desirable trait. Molecular marker linked to the trait of interest can be screened for at any stage in the breeding programme.

4. RAPD and other molecular markers have great value in the selection for desirable trait in long-lived species which takes long time for maturity and show phenotypic character. For example, avacado (Persea americana) fruit quality can be assessed in seedling itself using RAPD molecular marker.

5. RAPD markers have been used to identify several disease resistant genes in plants. The rp94 gene is responsible for resistance to stem rust (Puccinia gramnis) in barley. RAPD markers identified to link to this gene. Similarly, RAPD markers linked to heat smut resistance gene have been characterized. Controlling of height in barley plant by specific gene has been used to locate dwarfism gene by RAPD marker.

6. In tissue culture work, somatic hybrids involving protoplast fusion requires thorough screening. However, screening of somatic hybrid is cumbersome. Therefore, RAPD markers can be exploited in identifying somatic hybrids. RAPD analysis provides an important tool for the characterization of biodiversity.

Identification of areas rich in endemic genotypes helps in habitat conservative and prevents species extinction. Molecular analysis of genetic diversity using RAPD or RFLP in plant genetic germplasm collection facilitate better management especially space and resources are serious constraints.

RAPD analysis has been used for the identification of duplicates in germplasm. These duplicates are then discarded once no morphological differences were detected. RAPD analysis has been implicated in the analysis of rice genome collections held at the International Rice Research Institute, Phillipines.

Genetic diversity was carried out in a set a 63 tetraploid wheat genotype. Which comprises 24 duran land races, 18 duran cultivars and nine diococcum cultivars, two wild tetraploid species? The duran and dicoccum wheat genotypes are part of the germplasm used in Indian tetraploid wheat breeding programme.

RAPD scoring analysis reveals 78% were polymorphic in different categories of Indian tetraploid wheat. These indicate that RAPD diversity data can be used in breeding improved cultivars and maintaining genetic diversity in germplasm. Similarly RAPD markers were generated from 6 groups of 23 varieties of Tibetian barley. Nearly 23 RAPD and 29 genes loci were identified on 72 chromosomes.

RAPD have also been used in variety identification and purity in grain processing in food industry. For example, particular duran variety of wheat is used in the prepara­tion of food products. Contamination of other variety can be identified by using these molecular markers.

1. Constraints about reproducibility of results.

2. Since RAPD markers are dominant, only half the genetic informations are co-domi­nant markers.


Materials and Methods

Plant material and cultural conditions.

Two experiments were conducted, a greenhouse and growth chamber experiment. The first experiment used 1.5-year-old seedlings of ‘Volkamer’ lemon (Citrus volkameriana) from late Aug. to mid-Oct. 2009. The trees were grown in an unshaded greenhouse under a natural photoperiod with an average temperature of 29 ± 7 °C and relative humidity from 70% to 95%. All trees were grown in 2.65-L Citra-pots (CPOT-5H Stuewe and Sons, Tangent, OR) using a commercial potting mix composed of peat, pine bark, perlite, and vermiculite (Fafard 2B Mix Conrad Fafard, Agawam, MA). Trees were ≈40 cm tall at the start of the experiment with multiple branches. Five single-tree replicates were used for each PGR treatment (Table 1), and untreated trees served as controls. Trees with very young “feather” flush (i.e., recently broken buds with new growth ≈1–2 cm in length and immature leaves just beginning to unfold) were selected for use in the experiment. The seedlings had never been treated with systemic insecticides and the last treatment with contact insecticides was greater than 1 year before PGR treatment.

Active ingredient chemical name, trade name, manufacturer, and rate of plant growth regulators used to study the effects of applications to Citrus sp. on the reproductive biology of the asian citrus psyllid.

The second experiment was conducted from Jan. to Feb. 2010 and was carried out in a custom-built walk-in growth chamber (Mechanical Refrigeration, Winter Haven, FL) to provide conditions suitable for vegetative growth. The growth chamber was maintained at 28/21 °C day/night temperature with a 14-h photoperiod and a light intensity of 900 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 photosynthetically active radiation. Relative humidity was not controlled and averaged 50% to 70%. PGR treatments were the same as those used in the greenhouse study (Table 1) however, an additional water + adjuvant control was included. For this study, eight 1-year-old ‘Valencia’ sweet orange trees on ‘Kuharske Carrizo’ citrange (C. sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata) rootstock were used for each treatment. All plants were grown in 2.65-L Citra-pots using the potting media described previously and were ≈70 cm tall at the start of the experiments. The plants had never been treated with insecticides.

Growth regulators and application techniques.

The PGR formulations used in the experiments are listed in Table 1. These PGRs were selected because they have been previously shown to be efficacious on citrus (prohexadione calcium and paclobutrazol) or other tree fruit species. All products were applied as foliar sprays to runoff, coating upper and lower leaf surfaces, using a 1-L handheld pump-up sprayer. The soil surface was covered with a cardboard shield during application and was left in place until the products dried to avoid soil contamination and potential root uptake. All sprays included a non-ionic surfactant (Induce® Helena Chemical Co., Collierville, TN) at 2.5 mL·L −1 . The prohexadione calcium sprays also included 5 mL·L −1 of 5% citric acid to aid in product uptake as per the manufacturer's recommendations. Product application rates were selected based on previously published data for citrus (prohexadione calcium and paclobutrazol) or by selecting a recommended label rate for tree use.

Data collection.

In both experiments, the total shoot length (sum of the main stem and all lateral branches) of each tree was measured before PGR application and again 32 d later (after ACP removal). The percent increase in total shoot length was calculated by dividing the difference between the final and initial total shoot length measurements by the initial total shoot length and multiplying the result by 100.

Seven days after PGR application, a randomly selected pair (one male, one female) of ACP from a colony reared on ‘Volkamer’ lemon seedlings or ‘Valencia’ sweet orange trees maintained within psyllid-proof screen enclosures in the greenhouse previously described was caged on each tree. The cages were constructed from a sheet of polyethylene monofilament woven screen with a hole size of 0.266 × 0.818 mm, which was loosely draped over each tree and secured around the trunk. The number of eggs laid on each plant was counted at 3-d intervals for 21 d. As development of the eggs and then nymphs occurred, the number of nymphs and adults was also counted. Survivorship of nymphs to the adult stage was assessed by dividing the total number of adults after 21 d (less the two original adults) by the total number of nymphs. Adults were then collected and weighed to determine adult body mass.

To determine if the PGR treatments affected photosynthesis, and thus potentially reduced phloem sap carbohydrate content, instantaneous net CO2 assimilation was measured in the growth chamber experiment on one recently expanded mature leaf on each plant per treatment at 15, 25, and 33 d after treatment using a portable photosynthesis system (LI-6400XT LI-COR, Lincoln, NE) with a 6-cm 2 broadleaf chamber. The chamber was equipped with an external light-emitting diode light source (6400-02B LI-COR) set to match the ambient light level (900 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 ). In addition, to determine if there were any PGR-induced differences in the nutritional status of the plants, all leaves were removed from each plant at the end of the growth chamber study and sent to a commercial laboratory for complete nutrient analysis (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sulfur, boron, zinc, manganese, iron, and copper Waters Agricultural Laboratories, Camilla Park, GA).

Statistical analysis.

ACP egg counts and adult body weights were natural log-transformed and percent ACP survivorship data were arcsine-transformed to ensure normality, linearity, and homoscedasticity. Differences between treatment means were tested for significance with Tukey's honestly significant difference ( hsd ) test (P = 0.05). Plant nutrient and photosynthesis data and arcsine-transformed percent increase in tree growth data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance. Differences between treatment means were tested for significance with Tukey's hsd test (P = 0.05). All analyses were conducted using SAS (Version 9.2 SAS Institute, Cary, NC).


The following table is a list of scientific journals publishing articles on many areas of botany.

Journal Homepage Publisher Publication History Language Publication Frequency
Acta Amazonica journal home National Institute of Amazonian Research 1971–present English 4 issues per year
Acta Botanica Brasilica journal home Sociedade Botânica do Brasil 1987–present English 4 issues per year
Acta Botanica Gallica journal home Taylor & Francis for Société botanique de France 1853–present English and French 4 issues per year
Acta Botanica Malacitana journal home University of Malaga 1975–present Spanish, English and French Continuous, Online
Acta Botanica Mexicana journal home Instituto de Ecologia - CONACYT 1998–present Spanish and English Continuous, Online
Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica journal home Japanese Society for Plant Systematics 1932–present English 3 issues per year
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae journal home Polish Botanical Society 1923–present English 4 issues per year
Aliso journal home Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden 1948–present English 2 issues per year
American Journal of Botany journal home HighWire Press and the Botanical Society of America 1914–present English 12 issues per year
Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid journal home Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid 1941–present Spanish and English 2 issues per year
Annals of Botany journal home Oxford Journals 1887–present English 12 issues per year
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden journal home Missouri Botanical Garden Press 1914–present English 4 issues per year
Annual Review of Plant Biology journal home Annual Reviews 1950–present English 1 issue per year
AoB PLANTS journal home Oxford Journals 2009–present English Continuous, Online
Aquatic Botany journal home Elsevier 1975–present English 6 issues per year
Arnaldoa journal home Antenor Orrego University 1991–present Spanish 3 issues per year
Arnoldia journal home Harvard University 1911–present English 4 issues per year
Australian Journal of Botany journal home CSIRO 1953–present English 8 issues per year
Australian Systematic Botany journal home CSIRO 1988–present English 6 issues per year
Biologia Plantarum journal home Czech Academy of Sciences 1959–present English 4 issues per year
Blumea journal home ingentaconnect and National Herbarium of the Netherlands 1934–present English 3 issues per year
Blyttia journal home Norwegian Botanical Association 1943–present Norwegian 4 issues per year
Bonplandia journal home Universidad Nacional del Nordeste 1960–present Spanish, English and Portuguese 2 issues per year
Botanica Helvetica journal home Springer Science+Business Media and the Swiss Botanical Society 1890–present English, German, Italian, French and Romansh 2 issues per year
Botanica Pacifica journal home Botanical Garden-Institute of the Far Eastern branch of the Russian academy of Sciences 2012–present English 2 issues per year
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society journal home Wiley Online Library 1856–present English 12 issues per year
Botanicheskii zhurnal journal home Russian Botanical Society and Russian Academy of Sciences 1916–present English and Russian 12 issues per year
Botanisk Tidsskrift archive Danish Botanical Society 1866–1980 Danish, German, English and French 4 issues per year
Botany journal home National Research Council Canada 1929–present English 12 issues per year
Brazilian Journal of Botany journal home Springer and Sociedade Botânica de São Paulo 1976–present English (formerly Portuguese) 4 issues per year
Brittonia journal home New York Botanical Garden Press 1931–present English 4 issues per year
The Bryologist journal home American Bryological and Lichenological Society 1898–present English 4 issues per year
Caldasia journal home National University of Colombia 1940–present Spanish and English 2 issues per year
Candollea journal home Conservatory and Botanical Garden of the City of Geneva 1922–present English and French 2 issues per year
Castanea journal home Southern Appalachian Botanical Society 1936–present English 2 issues per year
Cavanillesia archive Institució Catalana d'Història Natural 1928–1938 Spanish 3-4 issues per year
Chinese Bulletin of Botany journal home Chinese Academy of Sciences 1983–present Chinese 6 issues per year
Contributions of the University of Michigan Herbarium journal home University of Michigan Herbarium 1939–2007 English Variable
Curtis's Botanical Magazine journal home Wiley and Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 1787–present English 4 issues per year
Dansk Botanisk Arkiv archive Danish Botanical Society 1913–1980 Danish, English, French and German Variable
Darwiniana journal home Instituto de Botánica Darwinion 1922–present Spanish, English 2 issues per year
Dinteria archive Kuiseb Verlag 1968–1997 English Variable
Dumortiera journal home Meise Botanic Garden 1975–present English, Dutch and French 1-3 issues per year
Edinburgh Journal of Botany journal home Cambridge University Press for the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 1954–present English 3 issues per year
Egyptian Journal of Botany journal home Academy of Scientific Research and Technology 1960–present English and Arabic 3 issues per year
Environmental and Experimental Botany journal home Elsevier 1961–present English 9 issues per year
Erigenia journal home Illinois Native Plants Society 1982–present English Variable
Evansia journal home American Bryological and Lichenological Society 1984–present English 4 issues per year
Flora journal home Elsevier 1818–present English (current) and German (former) 8 issues per year
Folia Geobotanica journal home Springer and the Czech Academy of Sciences 1966–present English 4 issues per year
Frontiers in Plant Science journal home Frontiers (publisher) 2010–present English Continuous, Online
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore journal home National Parks Board, Singapore 1912–present English 2 issues per year
The Great Lakes Botanist journal home Michigan Botanical Club 1962–present English 4 issues per year
Harvard Papers in Botany journal home Harvard University Herbaria 1989–present English 2 issues per year
Iheringia. Série Botânica. journal home Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul 1958–present Portuguese and English 1 volume per year
International Journal of Plant Sciences journal home University of Chicago Press 1875–present English 9 issues per year
Italian Botanist journal home Italian Botanical Society and Pensoft Publishers 1969–present English 2 issues per year
Journal of Experimental Botany journal home Oxford Journals for the Society for Experimental Biology 1950–present English 12 issues per year
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology journal home Wiley, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Botanical Society of China 2005–present English 12 issues per year
Journal of Japanese Botany journal home Tsumura 1916–present English, Japanese 6 issues per year
Journal of Plant Interactions journal home Taylor & Francis 2005–present English 4 issues per year
Journal of Plant Biology journal home Springer and Botanical Society of Korea 1958–present English 6 issues per year
Journal of Plant Physiology journal home Elsevier 1909–present English Continuous, Online
Journal of Plant Research journal home The Botanical Society of Japan 1887–present English 6 issues per year
Journal of Systematics and Evolution journal home Botanical Society of China, the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences 2008–present English 6 issues per year
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas journal home Botanical Research Institute of Texas 1962–present English and Spanish 2 issues per year
Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society journal home Torrey Botanical Society 1973–present English 4 issues per year
Kew Bulletin journal home Springer and Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 1887–present English 4 issues per year
Kirkia journal home National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe 1960–present English Variable
Lagascalia journal home Universidad de Sevilla 1971–present English, Spanish, Portuguese and French 1 volume per year
Lankesteriana journal home Lankester Botanical Garden 2001–present English and Spanish 3 issues per year
Madroño journal home California Botanical Society 1915–present English 4 issues per year
Makinoa New Series N/A Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden 2001–present English 1 volume per year
Mediterranean Botany journal home Complutense University of Madrid 1979–present English 2 issues per year
Missouriensis journal home Missouri Native Plant Society 1979–present English 1 volume per year
Molecular Plant journal home Chinese Academy of Sciences and Cell Press 2008–present English 6 issues per year
New Journal of Botany journal home Taylor & Francis and Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland 1949–2017 English 3 issues per year
New Phytologist journal home Blackwell Publishing and the New Phytologist Trust 1902–present English 16 issues per year
New Zealand Journal of Botany journal home Royal Society of New Zealand 1963–present English 4 issues per year
Nordic Journal of Botany journal home Wiley and Nordic Society Oikos 1981–present English 6 issues per year
Novon journal home Missouri Botanical Garden Press 1991–present English 4 issues per year
Nuytsia journal home Western Australian Herbarium 1970–present English 3 issues per year
Pakistan Journal of Botany journal home Pakistan Botanical Society 1969–present English 6 issues per year
Palaeontographica Abt. B (Paleobotany) journal home Schweizerbart Science Publishers 1933–present English 2-3 volumes per year
PhytoKeys journal home Pensoft Publishers 2010–present English Continuous, Online
Phytotaxa journal home Magnolia Press 2009–present English Continuous, Online
Phytochemistry journal home Elsevier 1961–present English 12 issues per year
Plant Biology journal home Wiley, German Society for Plant Sciences and Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands 1999–present English 6 issues per year
Plant Diversity journal home Chinese Academy of Sciences 1979–present Chinese 6 issues per year
Plant Ecology & Diversity journal home Taylor & Francis for Botanical Society of Scotland 2008–present English 4 issues per year
Plant Ecology and Evolution journal home Royal Botanical Society of Belgium and Botanic Garden Meise 2010–present English and French 3 issues per year
The Plant Genome journal home Crop Science Society of America 2008–present English 3 issues per year
The Plant Journal journal home Blackwell Publishing and the Society for Experimental Biology 1991–present English 24 issues per year
Plant Physiology journal home American Society of Plant Biologists 1926–present English 12 issues per year
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry journal home Federation of European Societies of Plant Biology and French Society of Plant Biology 1998–present English 12 issues per year
Plant Science journal home Elsevier 1973–present English 12 issues per year
Plant Species Biology journal home Wiley and the Society for the Study of Species Biology 1986–present English 3 issues per year
Plant Systematics and Evolution journal home Springer 1851–present English 12 issues per year
Planta journal home Springer 1973–present English 12 issues per year
Portugaliae Acta Biologica journal home University of Lisbon 1945–present English and Portuguese 1 volume per year
Preslia journal home Czech Botanical Society 1914–present English 4 issues per year
Revista Peruana de Biología journal home San Marcos National University 1974–present Spanish and English 4 issues per year
Rhodora journal home New England Botanical Club 1899–present English 4 issues per year
Richardiana journal home Jardin Botanique de Guyane 2001–present French and English Continuous, Online
Rodriguesia journal home Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden 1935–present English (Portuguese before 2018) 2 issues per year
Selbyana journal home Marie Selby Botanical Gardens 1975–present English 2 issues per year
South African Journal of Botany journal home South African Association of Botanists 1932–present English 6 issues per year
Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift journal home Swedish Botanical Society 1907–present Swedish 5 issues per year
Systematic Botany journal home American Society of Plant Taxonomists 1976–present English 4 issues per year
Taiwania journal home National Taiwan University 1947–present English 4 issues per year
Taxon journal home International Association for Plant Taxonomy 1951–present English 6 issues per year
Telopea journal home National Herbarium of New South Wales, Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust 1975–present English 1 issue per year
Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) journal home Forest Herbarium, Bangkok 1954–present English 1 issue per year
Thai Journal of Botany journal home The Botanical Garden Organization,Thailand 2009–present English 2(3) issue per year
Webbia journal home Firenze University Press 1905–present English 2 issues per year
Willdenowia journal home Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin 1895–present English 3 issues per year
Wrightia archive Southern Methodist University & University of Texas at Dallas 1945–1984 English ?

The following table is a list of botany journals specialising in agronomy, including crop science and horticulture.

Journal Homepage Publisher Publication History Language Publication Frequency
Agronomy Journal journal home The American Society of Agronomy 1907–present English 6 issues per year
Agronomie journal home INRA and EDP Sciences 1981–2004 English and French 6 issues per year
Agronomy for Sustainable Development journal home INRA and EDP Sciences 2005–present English 4 issues per year
American Journal of Potato Research journal home Springer Science+Business Media and The Potato Association of America 1924–present English 6 issues per year
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research journal home Blackwell Publishing and the Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology 1995–present English 3 issues per year
The Biology of Canadian Weeds journal home Agricultural Institute of Canada ?–present English Variable
British Sugar Beet Review journal home British Sugar 1926–present English 4 issues per year
Cereal Research Communications journal home Akadémiai Kiadó 1972–present English 4 issues per year
Cereal Chemistry journal home AACC International 1923–present English 6 issues per year
Ceiba N/A Escuela Agricola Panamericana 1950–present English ?
Crop Protection (journal) journal home Elsevier 1982–present English 12 issues per year
Crop Science (journal) journal home The Crop Science Society of America 1961–present English 6 issues per year
Davidsonia journal home UBC Botanical Garden 1970–present English 4 issues per year
Economic Botany journal home Society for Economic Botany 1946–present English 4 issues per year
Erwerbs-Obstbau journal home Springer Science+Business Media 1958–present German 4 issues per year
Euphytica journal home Springer Science+Business Media 1952–present English 12 issues per year
European Journal of Agronomy journal home Elsevier and the European Society for Agronomy 1994–present English 8 issues per year
European Journal of Horticultural Science journal home Ulmer 1935–present English (current) and German (former) 6 issues per year
Field Crops Research journal home Elsevier 1978–present English 6 issues per year
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution journal home Springer Science+Business Media 1953–present English 6 issues per year
Grass and Forage Science journal home Blackwell Publishing and the British Grassland Society 1946–present English 4 issues per year
Hilgardia N/A University of California, Berkeley 1925–1996 English 9 issues per year
The Horticulturist journal home Institute of Horticulture 1992–present English 4 issues per year
Horticultural Reviews journal home John Wiley & Sons 1979–present English 1 volume per year
Industrial Crops and Products journal home Elsevier 1992–present English 6 issues per year
Invasive Plant Science and Management journal home Weed Science Society of America 2008–present English 4 issues per year
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science journal home Blackwell Publishing 1987–present English 6 issues per year
Journal of Applied Horticulture journal home Society for the Advancement of Horticulture 1999–present English 3 issues per year
Journal of Bamboo and Rattan journal home [ permanent dead link ] Springer Science+Business Media 2001–present English 4 issues per year
Journal of Cereal Science journal home Elsevier 1983–present English 6 issues
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology journal home International Society for Horticultural Science 1925–present English 6 issues per year
Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research journal home Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture 1993–present English 1 volume per year
Journal of plant nutrition and soil science journal home Wiley-VCH 1923–present English 6 issues per year
Journal of Plant Registrations journal home Crop Science Society of America 2007–present English 3 issues per year
Journal of the American Society of Horticulture journal home American Society for Horticultural Science 1875–present English 6 issues per year
Molecular Breeding journal home Springer Science+Business Media 1995–present English 4 issues per year
PHM journal home Hortilien 1826–present French 11 issues per year
Plant and Soil journal home Springer Science+Business Media and the Royal Netherlands Society of Agricultural Science 1948–present English 12 volumes per year
Plant Breeding (journal) journal home Blackwell Publishing 1986–present English 6 issues per year
Postharvest Biology and Technology journal home Elsevier 1991–present English 12 issues per year
Potato Research journal home Springer Science+Business Media and the European Association for Potato Research 1958–present English 4 issues per year
Rice journal home Springer Science+Business Media 2007–present English ?
Rice Science journal home Elsevier and China National Rice Research Institute 2007–present English 4 issues per year
Scientia Horticulturae journal home Elsevier 1973–present English 16 issues per year
Weed Biology and Management journal home Blackwell Publishing and the Weed Science Society of Japan 2001–present English 4 issues per year
Weed Research journal home Blackwell Publishing and the European Weed Research Society 1961–present English 6 issues per year
Weed Science journal home Weed Science Society of America 1952–present English 6 issues per year
Weed Technology journal home Weed Science Society of America 1986–present English 4 issues per year

the following table is a list of journals that specialize in publishing articles on dendrology.

Journal Homepage Publisher Publication History Language Publication Frequency
Canadian Journal of Forest Research journal home National Research Council Canada 1971–present English 12 issues per year
Dendrobiology journal home Institute of Dendrology 1955–present English (current) and Polish (former) 2 volumes per year
Forest Genetic Resources Bulletin journal home FAO 1973–present English, Spanish and French 1 volume per year
Journal of Dendrology N/A The Dendrological Society of South Africa 1981–present English and Afrikaans ?
New Forests journal home Springer Science+Business Media 1986–present English 4 issues per year
Revista Forestal del Perú journal home La Molina National Agrarian University 1967–present Spanish 2 issues per year
Tree Genetics & Genomes journal home Springer Science+Business Media 2005–present English 4 issues per year
Tree Physiology journal home Heron Publishing 1986–present English 12 issues per year
Trees - Structure and Function journal home Springer Science+Business Media 1987–present English 4 issues per year

The following table is a list of botany journals specializing in plant pathology.

Journal Homepage Publisher Publication History Language Publication Frequency
African Journal of Plant Pathology journal home Agricultural Research Institute, Egypt 2004–present English 3 issues per year
Annales de Phytopathologie N/A Institut national de la recherche agronomique 1969–1980 French Once a year
Annual Review of Phytopathology journal home Annual Reviews 1963–present English Once a year
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection journal home Taylor & Francis 1967–present English 6 issues per year
Australasian Plant Pathology journal home CSIRO 1972–present English 6 issues per year
Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology journal home The Canadian Phytopathological Society 1979–present French and English 4 issues per year
Canadian Plant Disease Survey journal home The Canadian Phytopathological Society 1997–present French and English Once a year
Crop Protection journal home Elsevier 1982–present English 12 issues per year
EPPO Bulletin - A journal of regulatory plant protection journal home Blackwell Publishing and the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization 1972–present French and English 3 issues per year
European Journal of Forest Pathology journal home Springer Science+Business Media 1895–present English (current) and German (former) 8 issues per year
European Journal of Plant Pathology journal home Springer Science+Business Media 1895–present English 8 issues per year
Fitopatologia Brasileira journal home Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia 1976–present English, Spanish and Portuguese 6 issues per year
Iranian journal of plant pathology/Bimarihaye Guiahi N/A Iranian Phytopathological Society 1963–present English 4 issues per year
Journal of General Plant Pathology journal home Springer Science+Business Media and The Phytopathological Society of Japan 1918–present English (current) and Japanese (former) 6 issues per year
Journal of Phytopathology/Phytopathologische Zeitschrift journal home Blackwell Publishing 1929–present English (current) and German (former)
Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection journal home German Phytomedical Society ?–present English 6 issues per year
Journal of Plant Pathology journal home Italian Phytopathological Society ?–present English (current) and Italian (former) 4 issues per year
Journal of Plant Protection Research journal home Polish Academy of Sciences 1968–present English
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions journal home American Phytopathological Society 1998–present English 8 issues per year
Molecular Plant Pathology journal home Blackwell Publishing and the British Society for Plant Pathology 2000–present English 6 issues per year
New Disease Reports journal home British Society for Plant Pathology 2000–present English 2 volumes a year
New Zealand Plant Protection journal home New Zealand Plant Protection Society 1948–present English Once a year
Pakistan Journal of Plant Pathology N/A Asian Network for Scientific Information 2002–2003 English 3 issues per year
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology journal home Elsevier 1971–present English 12 issues a year
Phytoparasitica journal home Priel Publishers 1973–present English 5 issues per year
Phytopathologia Mediterranea journal home Firenze University Press and Mediterranean Phytopathological Union 1967–present English 3 issues per year
Phytopathology journal home American Phytopathological Society 1910–present English 12 issues per year
Phytoprotection journal home The Quebec Society for the Protection of Plants 1963–present French and English 3 volumes a year
Plant Disease journal home American Phytopathological Society 1916–present English 12 issues per year
Plant Health Progress journal home Plant Management Network 2000–present English Online only
Plant Pathology journal home Blackwell Publishing and the British Society for Plant Pathology 1952–present English 6 issues per year

The following table is a list of botany journals that contain collections of review papers about general plant science.


Uses of Auxins in Agriculture and Horticulture (With Economic Importance)

The below mentioned article will highlight the eleven uses of auxins in the field of agriculture and horticulture.

They are: (1) Apical Dominance (2) Meristematic Activity (3) Rooting (4) Parthenocarpic or Seedless Fruits (5) Flowering in Pineapple (6) Prevention of Premature Fall of Fruits (7) Prevention of Sprouting of Potatoes (8) Weed Killing (9) Control of Lodging (10) Differentiation of Xylem and Phloem and (11) Sex Expression.

(1) Apical Dominance:

The auxins greatly influence the development of plant form and structure. It has long been known that while the main shoot of a plant is growing, its lateral buds are inhibited. If, however, the bud at the apex is cut off, the lateral buds begin to develop. It has been postulated that an inhibiting substance diffuses from the growing bud to the tissue below it.

With the advent of synthetic growth substances this theory was corroborated. When the apical bud was removed from the shoot and a small quantity of Indoleacetic acid was applied to the stump the lateral buds did not develop. The Indoleacetic acid was found to possess the power to inhibit lateral growth. Removal of plant apices is commonly practiced in lawns and gardens to develop hedges. The principle behind such practice is to eliminate apical dominance.

(2) Meristematic Activity:

Auxin affects the meristematic activity of cells other than those involved in tumor and callus production. Auxin produced in the apical bud stimulates and regulates the activity of the cambium in woody plants. It seems probable that the resumption of cambial growth in the spring is due to auxin produced by the buds in this season. Cambial growth may also be induced by the artificial application of auxin.

(3) Rooting:

Propagation of plants by vegetative means is quite commonly practiced in horticulture. Several experiments performed on a great variety of plants showed that auxin applications are generally beneficial in bringing about the rooting of cuttings. The process, known as vegetative propagation, is extremely useful to the horticulturists, for by means of it a great many genetically identical plants may be made from a single individual, and a desired genetic pattern, as in a variety of apple, seedless orange, or a rose of a new colour, may be preserved from generation to generation.

In practice, the ‘cutting’ is usually a twig with a few leaves on it, but sometimes leaves, pieces of stem or root, or even bulb scales may be used to start a new plant. Auxin treated cuttings generally root more rapidly than untreated ones, and the roots are more abundant and stronger. Dipping cutting into auxin solutions or powders has become a standard horticultural practice in advanced countries, and there are, in the market today dozens of preparations for the said purpose. The same ability to promote root growth is also possessed by ethylene.

The most widely used of the synthetic auxins for this purpose is Indolebutyric acid (IBA). It is used either alone or in combination with other auxins such as Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Recently attention has been called to the effectiveness of some of the chlorinated phenoxy acids.

(4) Parthenocarpic or Seedless Fruits:

Another property of auxins that has grown to economic importance is their ability, when applied to the flowers of certain species, to initiate development of fruit without pollination. Because of the difficulty of obtaining satisfactory pollination in some plants as well as to improve the quality and market value of the fruits auxin treatment in the form of sprays or aerosol is used.

Fruits so induced are usually, seedless so besides increasing yields, auxin treatments may make possible the development of new seedless varieties. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and Naphthoxyacetic acid (NOXA) have been successfully used in many plants to induce parthenocarpy.

(5) Flowering in Pineapple:

In the raising of pineapples there is great difficulty in obtaining satisfactory fertilization and development of the fruit. But here the problem is to obtain flowering at the proper time. The size to which the fruit develops is directly dependent on the number of leaves on the plant at the time of flowering. J. Van Overbeek, found in Cabezena variety of pineapple, which flowers poorly when left to itself, can be made to flower at any time of the year by a single application of an auxin.

Naphthaleneacetic acid or 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacctic acid. We, therefore, have the interesting possibility of producing uniform fruits of a selected size by applying the auxin to each plant when it has the appropriate number of leaves.

(6) Prevention of Premature Fall of Fruits:

In U.S.A. and Russia particularly, growers of citrus, apples and pears use large amounts of auxins for the prevention of premature fall of fruits. From a fourth to half of the entire crop may be lost because the fruit falls before it has matured or developed good colour. Thus the grower must either harvest before the best quality is attained or else, risk a heavy fall.

Auxin sprays proved highly successful, and now growers can obtain reasonable assurance against loss to their apple and pear crops by using these auxins. Naphthaleneacetic acid has given satisfactory results in apples and pears where as in case of citrus, 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is more successful.

(7) Prevention of Sprouting of Potatoes:

Still another commercial application of auxins takes advantage of their growth inhibiting ability. The methylester of Napthaleneacetic acid prevents the sprouting of potatoes in storage thus the tubers will keep longer, even at warm temperatures.

(8) Weed Killing:

2, 4-D (2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) has received wide acclaim as a weed-killer, for when sprayed on plants it kills the broadleaved dicotyledons, while sparing the grasses. Under favourable circumstances it can be used to keep sugar cane fields, corn and wheat fields or lawns free from most common weeds without laborious hoeing or weeding. Recent experiments indicate that in the plants affected by 2, 4-D there is a temporary sharp increase in the rate of metabolism.

The sprayed plant is not only injured where the chemical comes in contact with it, but is stimulated to burn up its reserve food supply. As a consequence it starves to death. In smaller concentrations 2, 4-D can also be used for most of the applications of auxins.

(9) Control of Lodging:

In some plants when the crop is ripe and there is heavy rain accompanied by strong winds, the plants bend as a result of which the ear (inflorescence) gets submerged in water and decays. If a dilute solution of any auxin is sprayed upon young plants, the possibility of bending of plants is reduced as the stem becomes stronger by the application of auxins.

(10) Differentiation of Xylem and Phloem:

Experiments with intact plants and also of tissue culture have shown that differentiation of xylem and phloem is under the control of auxins.

(11) Sex Expression:

The spray of auxins increases the number of female flowers in cucurbits. In maize, application of NAA (Nepthalene Acetic Acid) during the period of inflorescence differen­tiation can induce formation of hermaphrodite or female flowers in a male inflorescence. Thus auxins induce femaleness in plants.

We can see now that while the activities of plant hormones parallel those in animals upto a point, the parallel is not complete. The auxins seem to be more general and versatile in their effects. Auxin may influence a plant in many different ways, at least so far as the physical effects are observable. Sometimes it stimulates growth, under other conditions it retards growth.

Sometimes it induces a tumor. Sometimes it kills the entire plant. Such observations lead with increasing clarity to the conclusion that the auxins must influence some basic general cellular process, and that the result of this influence may be expressed in a variety of ways, depending on the nature and age of the tissue, on the availability of other interacting substances, and on the external and internal conditions.


Eating the Hand that Feeds You: Rhizophagy and Plant Nutrition

Those crazy scientists have done it again, throwing generally accepted theories of life science out the window. A group of Australian researchers have shown that plants are able to consume whole bacteria and yeast cells. Prior to this, our understanding of the root/microbe relationship revolved around the idea that microbes provided nutrition to plants. Bacteria can make nitrogen available, as well as solubilize phosphorus, potassium and micronutrients into forms that are plant friendly. Fungi perform a similar role, directly transporting nutrients and water into plants via the mycorrhizal networks. These mechanisms are pretty well understood and accepted as common. What’s not so commonly known is that plants can eat whole microbes. Yes, plant roots are able to devour bacteria and yeasts. The term proposed for this newly discovered mode of nutrition is Rhizophagy (rhye-zo-fay-jee).


Assistant/Associate Professor Plant-Microbe Biology

Position description
The School of Integrative Plant Science at Cornell University (https://sips.cals.cornell.edu) invites applications for a tenure track position at the Assistant or Associate Professor level in Plant-Microbe Biology. The coevolution of plants with their microbial partners and pathogens has produced a panoply of interaction systems that both benefit and threaten plants and global food security. The new faculty member will be expected to develop a strong, internationally recognized program in plant-microbe interaction biology. Examples of relevant research topics include, but are not limited to, mechanisms of plant immunity and pathogen virulence or symbiotic cooperation, host-microbe evolutionary genomics, systems biology, and biology of plants or plant-associated microbes with a focus on their adaptations for biotic interactions. Ideal projects will address fundamental questions in interorganismal biology and have a potential for translational benefit. The ideal candidate will thrive in the highly collaborative environment of Cornell University, which includes diverse faculty affiliated with the School of Integrative Plant Science (SIPS) in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, the University-wide Cornell Institute of Host-Microbe Interactions and Disease, Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, and the USDA Agricultural Research Service. The expected affiliation for the position will be the SIPS Section of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology on the Ithaca campus. The position will have a 60% research and 40% teaching responsibility, and the successful candidate will teach in the broad area of plant-microbe interactions and plant pathology.

Qualifications
Ph.D. in Plant-Microbe Biology, Plant Pathology, Plant Biology or related disciplines. The candidate must be able to work in a multidisciplinary and multicultural setting and create a collegial professional environment. Well-qualified applicants are expected to have a demonstrated record of publication excellence, and preferred qualifications include postdoctoral experience, ability to work with a team, and ability to communicate effectively with students, colleagues, and external stakeholders.

Salary and Benefits: Salary is competitive and commensurate with background and experience. An attractive fringe benefits package is provided.
Cornell University seeks to meet the needs of dual career couples, has a Dual Career Program, and is a member of the Upstate New York Higher Education Recruitment Consortium to assist with dual career searches. Visit http://www.unyherc.org to see positions available in higher education in the upstate New York area.

Application procedure
Submit as a single PDF file to Academic Jobs Online at https://academicjobsonline.org/ajo/jobs/10253 a letter summarizing your background and qualifications, a statement of research accomplishments and interests (3 pages maximum), a statement describing your teaching experiences, philosophy and interests (2 pages maximum), a detailed curriculum vitae, and the names and contact information of three or four references (letters will be requested after the applications are reviewed). Inquiries may be sent to Prof. Greg Martin, Search Chair ([email protected]). Initial screening of applications will begin on January 5, 2018 and continue until the position is filled.

Opportunity
The College of Agriculture and Life Sciences is a pioneer of purpose-driven science and Cornell University's second largest college. We work across disciplines to tackle the challenges of our time through world-renowned research, education and outreach. The questions we probe and the answers we seek focus on three overlapping concerns: natural and human systems food, energy and environmental resources and social, physical and economic well-being.
Cornell University is an innovative Ivy League university and a great place to work. Our inclusive community of scholars, students and staff impart an uncommon sense of larger purpose and contribute creative ideas to further the university's mission of teaching, discovery and engagement. With our main campus located in Ithaca, NY, Cornell's far-flung global presence includes the medical college's campuses on the Upper East Side of Manhattan and Doha, Qatar, as well as the new Cornell Tech campus on Roosevelt Island in the heart of New York City. We offer a rich array of services, programs and benefits to help employees advance in their career and enhance the quality of personal life, including employee wellness, workshops, childcare and adoption assistance, parental leave and flexible work options.
Cornell University is committed to hiring and promoting a diverse faculty. Cornell embraces diversity and seeks candidates who will create a climate that attracts persons of all races, ethnicities, and genders. Women and underrepresented minorities are strongly encouraged to apply. Diversity and inclusion have been and continue to be a part of our heritage. Cornell University is a recognized EEO / AA employer and educator


The first initiative of DNA barcoding of ornamental plants from Egypt and potential applications in horticulture industry

DNA barcoding relies on short and standardized gene regions to identify species. The agricultural and horticultural applications of barcoding such as for marketplace regulation and copyright protection remain poorly explored. This study examines the effectiveness of the standard plant barcode markers (matK and rbcL) for the identification of plant species in private and public nurseries in northern Egypt. These two markers were sequenced from 225 specimens of 161 species and 62 plant families of horticultural importance. The sequence recovery was similar for rbcL (96.4%) and matK (84%), but the number of specimens assigned correctly to the respective genera and species was lower for rbcL (75% and 29%) than matK (85% and 40%). The combination of rbcL and matK brought the number of correct generic and species assignments to 83.4% and 40%, respectively. Individually, the efficiency of both markers varied among different plant families for example, all palm specimens (Arecaceae) were correctly assigned to species while only one individual of Asteraceae was correctly assigned to species. Further, barcodes reliably assigned ornamental horticultural and medicinal plants correctly to genus while they showed a lower or no success in assigning these plants to species and cultivars. For future, we recommend the combination of a complementary barcode (e.g. ITS or trnH-psbA) with rbcL + matK to increase the performance of taxa identification. By aiding species identification of horticultural crops and ornamental palms, the analysis of the barcode regions will have large impact on horticultural industry.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Fig 1. Within genera polymorphic sites identified…

Fig 1. Within genera polymorphic sites identified for rbcL and matK .


Botany vs Horticulture: Similarities and Differences

Interested in plants? Want to turn your green thumb into a career? The choices you have for an educational path may be daunting. With infinite terms regarding plants and learning about the care of plants, how do you know or find what you’re looking for? In this month’s Horticultural Science Online blog, we discuss the similarities and differences between botany and horticulture and what you’ll get with a NC State horticulture education.

How is botany different than horticulture?

Botany is defined as “the scientific study of plants, including their physiology, structure, genetics, ecology, distribution, classification, and economic importance” horticulture is defined as “the art and science of garden cultivation and management.”

In both the undergraduate and graduate online programs offered by NC State’s Horticultural Science Department , horticultural science students can apply the science-based knowledge of how plants grow, what they learn in botany, directly to the utilization of plants in various horticultural applications. While students enrolled in the online certificate programs or degree program learn about garden cultivation and management, they also learn about subjects such as plant breeding and the physiology of plants, which gets deeper into the understanding of plants and their culture.

Botany is regarded as a broader, pure science in regards to living plant organisms, from the smallest bacteria to the largest trees. Horticulture, on the other hand, is an applied science under that umbrella and focuses solely on edible and ornamental plant life. While participating in the NC State Horticulture Online Programs, students are able to hone in on specific topics that interest them.

Botany and horticulture in the news: the corpse flower

This year has been a big year for horticulture news and events. Have you heard about the rare corpse flowers blooming all over the country? The titan arum , better known as the corpse flower , takes an incredible 13 years to bloom. Not only is the time it takes to grow astounding, but they are also the largest flowers in the world, and they emit a putrid smell resembling that of rotting animal when they bloom.

This year was a big year for the corpse flower, with many simultaneously blooming in the summer and early fall of 2016 around the United States. Even the NC State horticultural science department had its very own corpse flower blooming in early September. The flowers, which can grow up to 10 feet tall in size, draw large crowds looking to catch a peek—or a sniff—of the incredible rare plant.

A Master’s student in horticultural science and plant breeding, Brandon Huber grew NC State’s corpse flower he spent nine years working on and waiting for the six-foot-tall monstrosity to bloom.

A new attention and vigor exists in the botany, and specifically the horticulture field, due to the brilliant blooming of seven corpse flowers in the United States this year. With exciting events like this, the horticulture field continues to gain interest from more and more potential students.

Check back each month to the Horticultural Science Online blog, as we take a closer look at the field and answer more questions about horticulture.


Watch the video: Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis in plants. Photosynthesis - Biology basics for children. elearnin (July 2022).


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