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Lab 12 Nervous Physiology Testing Reactions - Biology

Lab 12 Nervous Physiology Testing Reactions - Biology



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Objectives:

At the end of this lab, you will be able to…

1) Differentiate between a reflex and reaction
2) Explain the impact that anticipation and learning has on the rate of reactions
3) Compare the differences within and between individuals based on the patterning of external stimulus leading to the reaction response.

Introduction
Reactions are an important to everyday activities. They are a reflexive behavior that we use to protect ourselves. Where we are able to use one of our senses to initiate a response to a stimulus, even without having to think about what that response will be. Because the time required for most of reactions and reflexes to occur are very short, less than one second, we use the typical measure of millisecond (msec) as opposed to using the whole second. As the numbers will always be thousandths of a whole second and whole numbers are much easier to deal with than decimals or fractions.

Figure 1. Pathway for a reaction response to a stimulus, note the interplay between cortical structures and the afferent and efferent pathways.

But what makes reactions different from reflexes? Reflexes are unconscious, involuntary and unintentional response to a stimulus on a receptor. While, a reaction is a deliberate conscious response to a specific stimulus that is voluntary and intentional. We can test our reflexes through use of a reflex hammer on specific tendons throughout the body. To perform this reflex test, the tester strikes the hammer on a specific spot within the tendon. The reflex response may be measured on a subjective grading scale to determine the tone of the muscle. We cannot learn how to control the response to test, the reflex just happens. This is different from the concept of reactions and testing of reactions.
While the reaction is a reflex, it is unlike the muscle tendon reflex as they are specific purposeful actions made in response to a specific stimulus. Since reactions being both cognitive and purposeful, we are able to learn how to react and thus anticipate the appropriate response. The ability to modify and modulate reactions occurs because reactions involve input from our primary motor cortex through a prolonged reflex loop. Where to speed up the response, the primary motor cortex can actually send opposing signals to the agonist and antagonist muscles of the desired movement and upon the initiation of the reaction will stop the opposing signals and allow for the coordinated actions within the reflex, see figure 1. The more often we utilize the reaction pathway, the more we can modify the speed of reaction to any given stimulus and in doing so can be seen to have “faster reactions” relative to a novice in the activity or to what we were able to react to prior to learning the appropriate response.
Reactions become very important to our successful performances in many activities we perform daily, whether it be playing a musical instrument, dancing, playing sports or doing athletic things, playing video games, or even just driving a car. The more often we are exposed to a situation; reactions to that stimulus tend to occur more quickly than when first exposed to the situation. There are different activities that can improve our reaction skills, all of which depend on the signal used to initiate the reaction, including noises (like a starting gun at a race), objects flying at you (like catching a ball before you get hit by it), or falling to the floor (like catching the plate before it hits the floor and your mom or dad gets upset). Because of what they do to our physiology, stimulants that we consume can alter the speed that reactions form to a stimulus and will make a person appear to react much faster than if they were to react to the same stimulus when sober.
When testing reactions, we normally measure it through reaction time to respond to a stimulus through movement of limb (hand, finger, foot). It is important to remember that limb dominance and habitual utilization can influence the responses seen. As the more often we use a limb or pattern of motion, the more “ingrained” the motion becomes while the less often we use the limb or pattern of motion the more likely we are to over-exaggerate the response, as we are not certain as to the pattern for response. The over-exaggeration can be seen with the person responding prior to the stimulus or generating too large of a response than what the habitually utilized the limb would produce. Additionally, the speed by which neurons function can slow and the reduction in the speed of neuron activity can slow our reactions. This reduction in conduction speed and longer reaction time can lead to the same over-exaggeration that is seen from the non-habitually used limb and with progressive aging can lead to overall slower movements for the person so that they can ensure their ability to react to a stimulus appropriately.
The purpose of the experiment here is to test reactions to visual signals where we will examine the differences that exist between dominant (habitually used) and non-dominant (not habitually used) hands. Further we will look at differences that may exist between genders (male or female), habitual use of playing video games, acute exposure to a stimulant, and age of the volunteer.

Hypothesis:

Materials and Methods:

  • Meterstick
  • Stopwatch

Methods:
Part 1: Testing with the meter-stick
I. Choose slip of paper to indicate order of testing Anticipation or No Anticipation
II. Based on slip of paper indicate order that you will test reactions
Test #1:
Test #2:

Testing with no anticipation:

1. Determine who will be tested first.
2. Have the person being the test subject to sit on a chair and place the dominant arm on the table so that the hand is off the table, but the rest of the arm is on the table. Have them turn their hand so that the thumb is facing up (toward the ceiling) and the fingers are facing forward.

Positioning of the hand of the test subject.

3. Have the person acting as the tester, stand and face the person being tested with the meter-stick being held vertically, turn the meter-stick so that the numbers face the thumb side of the hand.

Positioning of the meter-stick for testing reaction time.

4. In that position, have the subject pinch their index finger and thumb together so that they are touching the meter-stick.
5. Have the person relax their pinch so that the meter-stick is free and being held by the tester in the air between the subject's thumb and index finger, but not touching either one of the fingers.
6. Align the zero mark of the meter-stick with the top of the subject’s fingers. Ask the subject if they are ready. And tell them that once they see the meter-stick drop try to catch the meter-stick between their index finger and thumb.
7. Without warning, release the ruler and let it drop and have the subject catch it as quickly as possible as soon as they see it fall.

Process used for testing of reaction times by catching the falling meter-stick.

8. Record in centimeters the distance the ruler fell, by reading the distance at the top of the subject’s finger in the correct results table.

Identification for where to read the mark for distance that meter-stick fell prior to being caught.

9. Repeat steps 6-9 for a total of 5 times. Following the fifth trial, switch partner roles.
10. Repeat steps 3-10 for the next partner and then for the other (non-dominant) arm of each partner.

Testing with anticipation: This time after asking them if they are ready, you will give them a countdown to the drop of the meter-stick.

11. Have them turn their hand so that the thumb is facing up (toward the ceiling) and the fingers are facing forward.
12. Have the person acting as the tester, stand and face the person being tested with the meter-stick being held vertically, turn the meter-stick so that the numbers face the thumb side of the hand.
13. In that position, have the subject pinch their index finger and thumb together so that they are touching the meter-stick.
14. Have the person relax their pinch so that the meter-stick is free and being held by the tester in the air between the subject's thumb and index finger, but not touching either one of the fingers.
15. And tell them that once they see the meter-stick drop try to catch the meter-stick between their index finger and thumb.
16. Countdown from 5 to 1, and on “1” release the ruler, let it drop and have the subject catch it as quickly as possible as soon as they see it fall.
17. Record in centimeters the distance the ruler fell, by reading the distance at the top of the subject’s finger.
18. Repeat for a total of 5 times. Following the fifth trial, switch partner roles.
19. Repeat steps 14-18 for the next partner and then for the other (non-dominant) arm of each partner.

Table 1. Conversion of average time (msec) for reaction based on the distance that the meter-stick fell prior to be caught.

Distance (cm)

Time (msec)

Distance (cm)

Time (msec)

Distance (cm)

Time (msec)

Distance (cm)

Time (msec)

1

45

26

230

51

323

76

394

2

64

27

235

52

326

77

396

3

78

28

239

53

329

78

399

4

90

29

243

54

332

79

402

5

100

30

247

55

335

80

404

6

111

31

252

56

338

81

407

7

120

32

256

57

341

82

409

8

128

33

260

58

344

83

412

9

136

34

263

59

347

84

414

10

143

35

267

60

350

85

416

11

150

36

271

61

353

86

419

12

156

37

275

62

356

87

421

13

163

38

278

63

359

88

424

14

169

39

282

64

361

89

426

15

175

40

286

65

364

90

429

16

181

41

289

66

367

91

431

17

186

42

293

67

370

92

433

18

192

43

296

68

373

93

436

19

197

44

300

69

375

94

438

20

202

45

303

70

378

95

440

21

207

46

306

71

381

96

443

22

212

47

310

72

383

97

445

23

217

48

313

73

386

98

447

24

221

49

316

74

389

99

449

25

226

50

319

75

391

100

452

Part 2: Reaction to the Stopwatch
I. Select paper to indicate order of testing: Dominant/Non-dominant
II. Record Testing Order: 1st 2nd

1. Using the same order for testing of partner as in Part 1 get the stopwatch
2. Tester will explain that the test subject will click start and try to stop the timer as close to 1.00 seconds as possible. The only times that will be officially recorded will be times after 1.00 seconds (meaning 0.99 second does not get recorded as an official trail but as an No Score)
3. Demonstrate the test to the test subject by holding the stopwatch in dominant hand so that thumb is able to press the “Start/Stop” button. Click “Start/Stop” and once “1.00” is seen on the stop watch hit “Start/Stop” and write down the numbers that follow the decimal (such that 1.20 on the stop watch becomes 200 milliseconds (msec) on the data table).
4. Reset the stopwatch and hand the stopwatch to the test subject
5. Have test subject assume the test position with the 1st hand
6. Give countdown “3..2..1..Go!” and have the test subject press “Start/Stop” and then stop the timer by pressing “Start/Stop” as close to 1.00 second as possible.
7. After the test subject has stopped the timer, collect the stopwatch and record the time in table 4, reset and pass the stopwatch back to the test subject and repeat steps 4-6 for 5 total trials.
8. Repeat the stopwatch test for the opposite hand
9. Switch partners and repeat the entire stopwatch test

Upload data to the Google Document data table for completion of the lab report

Subject Demographics:
Age:
Gender:
Did you consume a stimulant within 1-hour of testing reactions? YES / NO
Average Hours per week you play video games:
Do you play a sport that forces you to quickly react to the ball? YES / NO

Results:

Table 2. Distance that the meter-stick fell for each of the trials, with no anticipation, and the time to react for the dominant hand and non-dominant hand

Dominant Hand

Non-Dominant Hand

Trial #

Distance (cm)

Time (msec)

Trial #

Distance (cm)

Time (msec)

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

Average

Average

Table 3. Distance that the meter-stick fell for each of the trials, with anticipation, and the time to react for the dominant and non-dominant hand.

Dominant

Non-Dominant

Trial #

Distance (cm)

Time (msec)

Trial #

Distance (cm)

Time (msec)

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

Average

Average

Table 4. Time (msec) past 1.00 second to stop the stopwatch as a measure of reaction for the dominant and non-dominant hand.

Dominant Hand

Non-Dominant Hand

Trial #

Time (msec)

Trial #

Time (msec)

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

Average

Average

Based on your hypothesis produce the appropriate graph to show the relationship between your testing factor (x-axis) and reaction times (y-axis).

Discussion: In 1-2 well formatted paragraphs, discuss your results based on your understanding of reactions and the relationship of data to supporting or refuting your specific hypothesis (Use the following think about questions don’t answer these as individual questions but use them to guide your analysis: What is seen in the differences in reaction times between individuals? What is seen between group members based on demographics? What is a plausible rationale for such differences? What happens to reaction times as the person progresses from the first to last test for each condition? Why did certain types of individuals have different reaction times versus other types of individuals? How do the findings relate to the principles of reactions?)


Laboratory Experiences in Human Physiology

The Biology 256 Fundamentals of Human Physiology Laboratory course complements the Biology 256 lecture course and was designed to provide students with hands-on access to modern techniques in human physiological analyses using the course-based research pedagogical approach. In this course, students will learn how to perform literature searches generate research questions and hypotheses design experiments collect, analyze, visualize and interpret data and present scientific findings to others. Students gain scientific process skills by conducting experiments and/or clinical investigations each week. Around midterm, students write a series of short research proposals. The best proposal is orally presented to the class and peer reviewed in preparation for a final, original experiment. During the last week of class, findings from the student research projects are presented to the class.

The Biol 256L curriculum offers a high-impact human physiology experience that fosters the critical thinking skills required to be a successful citizen in a modern world filled with misinformation. This goal is achieved by:

  • Creating a learning environment that relies on collaborative work and emphasizes communication among staff and peers.
  • Placing emphasis on collaborative assignments where students participate in experiments as experimenters and subjects.
  • Focusing on course-based undergraduate research (CURE) where the literature may not be conclusive on physiological outcomes of experiments.

Learning Outcomes:

  1. Develop the skills necessary to examine and interpret issues related to human physiology from an evidence-based perspective.
  2. Synthesize ideas to make connections between the knowledge of anatomy, physiology and real-world problems involving human health and medicine.

Learning Goals:

  1. Learn how to use common tools and procedures of a physiology laboratory, including how to use data collection hardware and analysis software.
  2. Understand how to make accurate measurements of physiological phenomena, including determining sources of error.
  3. Use knowledge of physiology concepts from lecture and the scientific method to propose, hypothesize about, and design experiments to test physiological phenomena.
  4. Apply knowledge of graphs and charts to visually represent data.
  5. Write and make presentations about experimental conclusions using appropriate physiological terminology.

Biology 256 Course Modules:

Course modules are delivered online in Canvas. Each Canvas module contains a pre-lab quiz and lab report.

Module 1: Introduction to experimental methods in human physiology research. Homework assignment: obtaining credible information from literature searches.

Module 2: Introduction to iWorx & LabScribe. Homework assignment: statistical analysis of human body temperature.Module 3: Properties of blood. Homework assignment: data analysis & visualization.

Module 4: Effects of temperature on peripheral blood oxygen saturation determined by pulse oximetry.

Module 5: Clinical techniques: performing the neurological assessment.

Module 6: Factors affecting reflex times of the Achilles and patellar stretch reflexes.

Module 7: Human nerve conduction: the nerve conduction velocity test and variables affecting conduction.

Module 8: Auditory and visual pathways and reaction times. Homework: research proposal 1.

Module 9: Electromyography (EMG) of voluntary muscle movement. Homework: research proposal 2.

Module 10: Reading the electrocardiogram (ECG) and correlation with heart sounds. Homework: research proposal 3.

Module 11: Breathing and gravity: factors affecting lung volumes.

Module 12: Modern uses of electrooculography (EOG) and eye tracking technologies. Homework: develop oral proposal presentation.

During the last three weeks of the course, students present final research proposals for peer review, conduct their original experiments, and present the final experimental results.

Undergraduate Experiences in Human Physiology Laboratory: BIOLOGY 491 Undergraduate Teaching Assistantship

Motivated students who are high-achieving in Biology 256L may apply for Biology 491 to be an undergraduate teaching assistant in the physiology laboratory. Please contact Aron Nakama, [email protected], for more information.

Fundamentals of Human Physiology (Honors)

The honors project for the BIOL 256 lecture course consists of a clinical and experimental techniques in physiology discussion group that meets 4-5 times before students make a choice to proceed with one of three possible projects in the physiology laboratory: 1.) electrooculogram (EOG) communication assistive device design challenge 2.) a human nerve conduction velocity (NCV) experiment or 3.) a prosthetic arm design challenge. Students meet for an hour once a week to discuss the techniques and fundamental physiological theory that are pertinent to each project. After a project is selected, students meet in the laboratory for several weeks to learn laboratory techniques, research and design assistive devices, develop experimental protocols, and conduct experiments or test prototypes. Summative meetings or lab sessions will be held to write the final project findings as a lab report.

Students will share the results of their project as a lab report detailing experimental and/or engineering design protocols required to complete the project and final outcomes of the project. The report will highlight the iterations of the project design and how testing of prototypes resulted in the final outcome(s). Finally, the lab report will include relevant background research and potential future work on the project.

Week 1: one hour meeting (introductory)

Week 2: one hour meeting (EOG)

Week 3: one hour meeting (NCV test)

Week 4: one hour meeting (prosthetics)

Week 5: laboratory meeting 1 (introduction to data collection)

Week 6: laboratory meeting 2 (experimental methods)

Week 7: laboratory meeting 3 (experimental methods/prototype testing)

Week 8: laboratory meeting 4 (prototype testing)

Week 9: summative laboratory meeting

Pre-College Outreach: OPPTAG (Retired Program)

Course: Introduction to the Human Body & Neuroengineering

Course location: 1233 Bessey Hall Laboratory

This summer course for pre-college students introduces human body structure and function. Morning sessions concentrate on developing a deeper knowledge of basic human anatomy, including learning the structure of human cells, tissues, organs and organ systems. Afternoon sessions are mostly devoted to understanding how these structures function by performing clinical measurements with laboratory-grade human physiology sensors placed on the surface of the body. This course places emphasis on engineering artificial devices for augmenting the functions of the human body, particularly neuroprosthetics and other human-computer interfaces.

Introduction to animal cells & tissues. Microscopic examination of wet mount and preserved human tissues.

Analysis of body systems – dissection of model system organism (fetal pig).

Human circulatory & urinary systems. Electrical conduction system of heart. Heart and kidney dissection.

Understanding heart function with the EKG (electrocardiogram). Artificial hearts, LVAD and pacemakers.

Fundamentals of skeletal muscle & its innervation: action potentials, the neuromuscular junction & muscle contraction.

Human nerve conduction study using EMG.

EMG and human-machine prosthetics. Prosthetic claw challenge.

The human-human interface. The central nervous system, motor control, and special senses. Brain and eye dissection.

Fundamentals of the electrooculogram (EOG) & ALS human-computer interface challenge.

Finish EOG challenge & work on presentations.

Practice presentations & open house.

Pre-College Outreach: Upward Bound

This course introduces human body structure and function. Sessions concentrate on developing an introductory knowledge of basic human anatomy, including learning the structure of human cells, tissues, organs and organ systems.

Most Monday-Thursday class sessions end with a homework assignment, lab report, or written summary. On Fridays, students take an exam covering the material from that week. Exams are a combination of structure identification questions on anatomy pictures or models and short answer essay questions. During Week 4, students work on short presentations that they will present to the class on the last day. These presentations will cover an approved topic related to the previous weeks’ materials.


It is often a challenge to add a human anatomy and physiology activity to the classroom that is easy to implement and is also inexpensive. I have used this experiment with students to test the sensitivity of nerves located in different parts of the body.

Time required: As little as 20 minutes if the concept has already been introduced and the data table is supplied.

Classroom set up: Supply one paper clip per student and at least one ruler per table. (Students can share rulers.) Students should record their own data.

  • This is an easy experiment for students to perform individually, but most students prefer help from a partner. If done in partners, warn students to poke gently. The first time I did this experiment, one of my students ended up with a bloody nose from an ill placed paperclip poke (and I teach high school students). Ever since then, I have warned students. They scoff and roll their eyes, but there haven’t been any more injuries.
  • Certain students may insist they feel two points even when only one point is used. For these students, working with a partner may work best so they can concentrate on what they feel rather than what they are doing. Sharing data as a class will also help these students relate what they feel to what everyone else experienced.
  • More advanced students should be able to produce the data table on their own without the pdf printout or instructions.
  • Have students write a formal hypothesis explaining their reasoning and conclusion explaining their data and why it either supported or did not support their initial hypothesis.
  • This experiment could lead to follow up questions or experiments giving the students the opportunity to design and implement their own experiment. Examples include testing which finger is most sensitive, comparisons to other parts of the body including feet or toes, or reactions to hot and cold.

Procedure

This experiment will be broken into two phases. The first test will use one ruler, while the second test will use two.

Experiment 1: In this phase you and your partner will test visual, auditory, and tactile reaction times using one ruler.

  1. Have your friend sit at a table with their dominant hand over the edge.
  2. First we will test visual response. Hold the ruler at the 30 cm mark so that the 0 cm end is just at your friend's index finger.
  3. Tell your friend that when you release the ruler they are to grab it as fast as possible. Do not make any sounds or gestures that you are releasing the ruler. They have to react to the visual stimulus of seeing the ruler being released. Record the centimeter mark.
  4. Repeat the experiment three more times. Then switch places with your partner and redo it.
  5. Now you will record auditory reactions. Have your partner sit at the table as before, also be sure your partner puts on the eye shades.
  6. Again testing the dominant hand, tell your partner that you will say the word "Release" as you release the ruler. Once they grab it record the centimeter mark and repeat 3 times. Switch places with your partner again.
  7. For the last test, have your partner sit at the table wearing the eye shades again. This time you will test the tactile response. Tell your partner that you will touch the shoulder of their non dominant arm as you release the ruler.
  8. Give you partner no auditory cue that you are releasing, just a simple touch. Record the measurement and like before, repeat three times, then switch places and redo.
Here is the table for the first experiment:

Experiment 2: In this phase you and your partner will test visual and auditory reaction times using two rulers.

  1. For the Visual portion of this experiment have your partner sit as the table, like before, but have both of their hands over the edge.
  2. You will hold both rulers this time instead of just one.
  3. Tell your partner that you will release just one ruler and they must pick the correct one and grab it as fast as possible…Tell them they must not squeeze both hands, only one.
  4. When you are ready to begin, randomly decide one ruler to drop. It does not matter which one, you will perform this test 3 more times, but never tell your partner which ruler you will drop.
  5. Again as before switch roles and redo.
  6. Finally, we will test the auditory reaction again. This time using both rulers.
  7. Get in the same position as before with both rulers. Make sure your partner has the eye shades on.
  8. You will then proceed to say "left" or "right". As you say it you will drop the corresponding left or right ruler. Your partner must decide which ruler to grasp based on the auditory cue you give: "left" or "right". As before, your partner must only squeeze one hand.
  9. Record the measurement and repeat 3 more times, remember to randomly decide which ruler to drop. Switch roles and repeat.
Here is the table for the second experiment:

In your chart above you are going to take all the centimeter measurements you have collected and convert the measurement in centimeters to seconds. This will tell you how long it takes, in seconds, an object (the ruler) to fall a certain distance. The formula below is comprised of three variables.

Here is an example of the equation being used:

It may seem tedious to convert by hand each number you recorded so instead you will be provided with a quick chart to convert your centimeter measurement to seconds. However, there are several values missing in the table. You will need to fill them out to complete the table. Use the equation above to fill out the remainder of the chart. If you are savvy you can also design a computer program to do this.

After using the chart and converting your centimeter measurements into seconds you will have your ruler reaction time in seconds. Looking at your data you might be thinking how you compare to the human average reaction time. Here it is! The average reaction time for humans is 0.25 seconds to a visual stimulus, 0.17 for an audio stimulus, and 0.15 seconds for a touch stimulus.


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This will be a 500-hour hands-on experience for students who successfully complete the prerequisite courses. The internship will provide valuable opportunities through which students will be able to put into action the practices that they learned in the classroom. Students will focus on procedures and specific applications relating to basic veterinary care, feeding and nutrition, animal handling, animal housing, and sanitation procedures.

Prerequisites: BIO 15 with a grade of C+ or better and BIO 47. Students will be permitted two attempts in BIO 15 to achieve the C+ grade. A “W” will not count as an attempt. If a student takes the course two times, the two grades will be averaged into the student’s GPA unless the first grade is an “F” and can be removed under the repeat-failure policy. Corequisites: CurrentTextBook:

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BIO 46 Lect 1 Lab 3 Cr 2

Clinical Techniques for Medical Personnel I

Introduction to the physician’s office, medical records, measurement of vital signs, electrocardiograph, preparation of the exam room and medical instruments, x-ray and radiograph methods
Prerequisites: BIO 18 or BIO 21, and BIO 22.

BIO 47 Lect 1 Lab 3 Cr 2

Clinical Techniques for Medical Personnel II

Clinical laboratory techniques for a medical office laboratory including sterilization and disinfection techniques, analysis of blood, urine and microbiology specimens. Use and care of the microscope and other laboratory instruments.
Prerequisites: BIO 18 and BIO 22 or BIO 21 and BIO 22 or BIO 11.

BIO 50 Lect 2 Lab 2 Cr 3

Biology, Bioethics and Law

Basic concepts on structure and function of the human body in conjunction with legal definitions and decisions, and ethical interpretations concerning biological/medical technology. Course includes material on contraception and sterilization, abortion, genetics, DNA manipulations, artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, surrogate motherhood, death and dying, human experimentation, organ transplantation.
Prerequisites: RDL 02 and ENG 02 if required

BIO 52 Lect 3 Lab 3 Cr 4

Principles of humoral and cellular immunity. Immunological techniques for identification of infectious diseases and immune disorders introduction to immunohematology (blood cell antigens) and tissue typing.
Prerequisites: BIO 12 and CHM 18 and departmental approval.

BIO 55 Lect 3 Cr 3

A survey of the major principles and concepts of the science of heredity. The course reviews classical Mendelian and non-Mendelian genetics. It covers modern genetics including the molecular basis of heredity, gene regulation, developmental genetics, population genetics and biotechnology.

BIO 56 Lect 2 Lab 4 Cr 4

Cell & Molecular Biology with an Introduction to Biotechnology

The study of living organisms at the cellular and molecular level concerning the structure and functions of organelles, metabolism, cell signaling, gene structures and function, DNA replication, transcription, translation and control of gene expression. The laboratory portion will focus on basic skills and concepts necessary for the techniques of Biotechnology. These include methods for isolation and characterization of macromolecules (DNA, RNA, Proteins), agarose and polyacrylamide electrophoresis, restriction digests and restriction mapping, PCR, cloning, cell transformations and hybridization reactions.

BIO 81 Lect 3 Lab 3 Cr 4

Introduction to Medical Laboratory Technology

This course is designed to preview the MLT curriculum coursework and for students to obtain a variety of laboratory skills needed in other MLT courses. It introduces the students to the professional and technical responsibilities of the Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT). Professional topics include hospital and laboratory organization, legal and ethical issues, quality assessment and lab math. Preliminary topics in the major technical areas of laboratory science (Microbiology, Immunology/ Serology, Hematology, Immunohematology, and Clinical Chemistry) are explored. The course also includes instruction and practice in phlebotomy techniques.

Prerequisites: BIO 11, MTH 13, CHM 17 and departmental approval. Corequisites: BIO 12, CHM 18.

BIO 82 Lect 2 Lab 4 Cr 4

Clinical Hematology & Coagulation

Principles and practice of clinical laboratory techniques in hematology and coagulation: complete blood count, normal and abnormal smears, sedimentation rate and coagulation studies. Emphasis on both manual and automated techniques, principles and diagnostic implications.

Prerequisites: BIO 12, BIO 81 and CHM 18 and departmental approval.

BIO 83 Lect 2 Lab 4 Cr 4

Clinical Chemistry

Basic principles of clinical chemistry and quality assurance. Clinical chemistry tests: glucose, renal function tests, serum proteins, hepatic profile, electrolytes, enzymes, and therapeutic drug monitoring. Emphasis on manual techniques, chemical principles and diagnostic implications.

Prerequisites: BIO 81, CHM 18 and MTH 13 and departmental approval.

BIO 84 Lect 1 Lab 4 Cr 3

Clinical Instrumentation

Principles of operation, maintenance, calibration and quality control of clinical laboratory instrumentation (e.g., spectrophotometers, ion-specific electrodes, electrophoresis and chromatography systems, cell counters). Clinical significance of abnormal findings will be discussed.

Prerequisites: BIO 83 and departmental approval.

BIO 85 Lect 1 Lab 2 Cr 2

Immunology/Serology

This course is an introduction to the theory and application of basic immunology, including the immune response, principles of antigen-antibody reactions, and the principles of serological procedures. The class includes other areas of study concerning the fundamentals of immunity and the immune response such as antibody structure and interactions, the complement system, hypersensitivity reactions and disorders of the immune response. A student laboratory is used for experiences in fundamental immunology/serology laboratory techniques.

Prerequisites: BIO 12, BIO 81, CHM 18 and departmental approval

BIO 86 Lect 1 Lab 3 Cr 3

Immunohematology

Immunohematology is the study of blood antigens and antibodies. The course covers principles, procedures and the clinical significance of tests results. Topics in blood banking also include blood group systems, pre-transfusion testing, and adverse effects of transfusions, donor selection, blood components and hemolytic disease of the newborn. The course also explores methods for blood processing, handling, and storage of blood components, and examines cross-matching and antibody identification procedures. The class utilizes a student laboratory for experiences in fundamental immunohematology laboratory techniques, including quality control and safety.

Prerequisites: BIO 12, BIO 81, CHM 18 and departmental approval

BIO 87 Lect 1 Lab 2 Cr 2

Urinalysis and Body Fluids

This course introduces urinalysis and body fluid analysis, including the anatomy and physiology of the kidney, and physical, chemical and microscopic examination of urine, cerebrospinal fluid and other body fluids. The course utilizes a student laboratory for experiences in basic urinalysis and body fluids analysis

Prerequisites: BIO 11, MTH 13, CHM 17 and department approval Corequisites: BIO 12, CHM 18 CurrentTextBook:

BIO 90 Cr 4

Clinical Internship

This 500-hour course is designed to provide the didactic and clinical experience necessary to acquire knowledge in Clinical Laboratory Science. Students practice clinical skills at local cooperating hospitals or private laboratories under the guidance of bench technologists and supervisors. They are evaluated by the person in charge of the laboratory and the faculty member assigned to the course to meet established clinical objectives. Students rotate through the following clinical areas: Hematology, Coagulation, Urinalysis, Serology / Immunology, Blood Bank, Microbiology, and Clinical Chemistry.

Prerequisites: Completion of all Medical Laboratory Technology courses and approval by the MLT Program Director.

BIO 91 Rec 1 Lect 2 Cr 3

Biomedical Research I: Simulated Research/Symposium

Scientific method and diverse symposium experiences. Students learn how to review scientific literature, evaluate research papers, write a scientific paper, present papers and design experiments. The symposium experience consists of visits to research laboratories, on-campus seminars with leading scientists and a national science conference

Prerequisites: Admission to the REAP Program.

BIO 92 Cr 300 hrs

Biomedical Research II: Participatory Research

Students have the opportunity to be part of a research team by working with leading scientific researchers in well-known research laboratories.
Prerequisites: BIO 91 and admission to the REAP Program.

BIO 150 Lect 3 Lab Cr 3

Biology, Bioethics and Law

Basic concepts on structure and function of the human body in conjunction with legal definitions and decisions, and ethical interpretations concerning biological/medical technology. Course includes material on contraception and sterilization, abortion, genetics, DNA manipulations, artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, surrogate motherhood, death and dying, human experimentation, organ transplantation.
Prerequisites: RDL 02 and ENG 02 if required.
Flexible Core: Scientific World

Enrollment in Botany is limited to students in the Ornamental Horticulture curriculum or with special permission of the department. Offered at the New York Botanical Garden. Students should contact the program director.

Enrollment in Floristry is limited to students in the Ornamental Horticulture curriculum with special permission of the department. Offered at the New York Botanical Garden. See curriculum advisor: Ms. Rebeca Araya.

Enrollment in Gardening is limited to students in the Ornamental Horticulture curriculum or with special permission of the department. Offered at the New York Botanical Garden. Students should contact the program director.

HORTICULTURE

Enrollment in Horticulture is limited to students in the Ornamental Horticulture curriculum or with special permission of the department. Offered at the New York Botanical Garden. Students should contact the program director.

LANDSCAPING

Enrollment in Interior Landscaping is limited to students in the Ornamental Horticulture curriculum or with special permission of the department. Offered at the New York Botanical Garden. See curriculum advisor: Ms. Rebeca Araya.

LANDSCAPE DESIGN

Enrollment in Landscape Design is limited to students in the Ornamental Horticulture curriculum or with special permission of the department. Offered at the New York Botanical Garden. See curriculum advisor: Ms. Rebeca Araya.


Reactions and Reflexes

Figure 1  Schematic representation of the sensorimotor pathway for a volunatry response to a stimulus.

Reflexes and reactions are often confused, but important differences exist. Reactions are voluntary responses whereas reflexes are involuntary or unintentional (and not subject to conscious control in most cases). Each type of response is initiated by a sensory stimulus that may be visual, audible, tactile, olfactory, or gustatory in nature. The stimulus excites specialized sensory receptors that respond specifically to a certain type, quality, and/or intensity of stimulation. Once activated, the receptors propagate nerve impulses that travel toward the brain along sensory (afferent) nerve tracts. The speed of a reflex is greater than that of a voluntary reaction, due largely to the relative complexity of the neural pathway for a reaction (Fig. 1) compared to that for a reflex (Fig. 2).

Reactions or reflexes?

An effective way to help your students differentiate reactions and reflexes is by leading them through a scenario involving a familiar sport. For example, you can describe the events that occur when a baseball player is at bat. He faces the pitcher, who stands 60½ ft away while he prepares to deliver a fastball at 90 mph. The ball will travel from his hand to the plate in approximately 0.45 s. That is all the time the batter will have to respond by either swinging the bat or allowing the ball to pass by. Many hours of practice have provided him with an uncanny ability to judge how the pitch should be played. When he launches a home run over the left field fence, the announcer praises his "unbelievable reflexes." This assessment of the player&aposs ability is not accurate, however, because his response was not truly reflexive as it required him to make a decision and an intentional response.

Now return your students to the batter’s box for a different scenario in which the pitcher loses control and hurls a fastball directly at the batter&aposs face. The batter&aposs eyes close involuntarily as he reacts by ducking sideways to avoid being hit. Again the announcer applauds the player&aposs "terrific reflexes," and this time he is at least partially correct.

Although reflexes are automatic and predictable, they have value in the avoidance of injury. In the above situation, the batter’s eyes closed reflexively in response to the baseball thrown at his face, thereby lessening the likelihood of injury to his eyes. At the same time, he responded to the danger by utilizing voluntary movement to get out of the way.

How much time?

Figure 2  Generalized reflex arc.

Reaction time is the amount of time required for an individual to perceive and respond to a sensory stimulus (such as the act of swinging a bat at a baseball). The average reaction time for a visual stimulus is 200 to 250 ms for hearing, 150 to 200 ms and for touch, 130 to 170 ms. Reaction time improves somewhat through repetition, which is a beneficial result of the many hours of practice that athletes endure. Ultimately, however, the speed at which a nerve impulse travels along a neural pathway (called nerve conduction velocity) limits reaction time. The diameter of the nerve and the amount of myelination can affect nerve conduction velocity. Some large myelinated nerves are capable of conducting impulses at speeds up to 120 m/s.

The simplest, least expensive way for students to measure reaction time is with a reaction time ruler. This device is similar to a yardstick, except its scale is in milliseconds (ms) to correspond with the progressive acceleration of a falling object. The subject sits with his thumb and forefinger poised opposite a designated point near the bottom of the ruler while the experimenter holds the ruler vertically. The experimenter allows the ruler to drop and the subject stops it as quickly as possible without moving his hand upward or downward. The time mark at the point where the subject’s fingers catch the ruler is recorded as his visual reaction time. Students can design their own experiments, testing the effects of distraction, fatigue, caffeine, and other factors on their performance. These experiments can be an excellent introduction to the fundamental procedures used in scientific data collection and analysis.

Reaction time rulers, along with materials and instructions for eliciting and studying a variety of reflex mechanisms, are included in the Carolina™ Reflexes and Reactions Kit.

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Name That Nerve!

Best played with the 12 cranial nerves, "Name That Nerve!" is a variation of the game show "Name That Tune". Gather a list of clues about a particular nerve. Arrange the clues from hardest to easiest. Teams try to "bargain" with each other for the number of clues that they will get. For example, one team (or individual) will say, "I can guess that nerve in 5 clues". If the other team or individual thinks they can guess the nerve in less clues they say "I can guess that nerve in 4 clues". It goes on, until one team does not want to venture a guess with so few clues. Give the number of clues bargained for to the team that will guess. Give the hardest clues first. If they guess correctly, then they get 100 points. If they guess incorrectly the other team gets the points (or you can add a clue for them to make a guess). The biggest challenge is making the questions. Here is one to get you started:

Clues: a special sensory afferent nerve, has a chiasm, connected to the retina, the second cranial nerve, used in vision. (Answer: Optic Nerve)