In details

Chemical bonds


Ionic bond

A substance widely used by humans is sodium chloride (the main component of table salt), a substance composed of the elements sodium and chlorine.

Looking at the periodic table, we have:

Elementproton number# of electronsTotal electrical charge
Sodium (Na) 11 11 0
Chlorine (Cl) 17 17 0

Now compare the electrosphere of these elements with that of the noble gases:

Elementproton number# of electronsTotal electrical charge
Helium (He) 2 2 0
Neon (Ne) 10 10 0
Argon (Air) 18 18 0
Krypton (Kr) 36 36 0
Xenon (Xe) 54 54 0
Radon (Rn) 86 86 0

Did you notice that the sodium electrosphere is closer in number of electrons to the neon electrosphere? And that chlorine is closer to that of argon?

If sodium loses an electron, its electrosphere will have the same number of electrons in the neon. And if chlorine gets an electron, it will have the same number of electrons as argon.

The scientists concluded that in sodium chloride, sodium atoms have 10 electrons and chlorine atoms have 18. As a result, these atoms are not electrically neutral.

Elementproton number# of electronsTotal electrical charge
Sodium (Na) 11 10 + 1
Chlorine (Cl) 17 18 - 1

When atoms lose or receive electrons they are no longer electrically neutrons and become ions.

Sodium ion represented powder Na+, which indicates its positive charge. Chlorine ion is represented by Cl-, which indicates its negative charge.

Like Na ions+ and Cl- they have opposite signal loads, attract each other and hold together. This union between ions is called the ionic bond, and gives rise to a highly organized structure, the ionic crystal lattice, outlined in the adjacent drawing.