One of the characteristics of the acid function is the presence in the substances classified in this function of the chemical element hydrogen bound to ametals. An example of acid is hydrochloric acid (HCl), which is present in our stomach, assisting in digestion.
There are acids that have more than two chemical elements in their composition and stand out for the presence of the oxygen element. Examples are the nitric acid (HNO)3) it's the sulfuric acid (H2ONLY4).
The chemical elements that participate in the composition of acids tend to gain electrons, so they are composed of covalent bonds, that is, they are not ionic substances, but rather molecular ones.
However, not all substances that have hydrogen in their composition can be classified as acidic. Only substances that undergo ionization by releasing cation H+ are considered acidic. THE ionization It consists of the formation of ions by breaking a covalent bond.
Note this behavior in acids below.
Ionization is a common feature of all acids. When these are dissolved in water, the bond of the hydrogen-bound element is broken, releasing it as a cation. H+.
See, in the equations represented below, how this happens.
Chemical equation It is the representation of a chemical reaction through the symbols of the participating species (atoms, molecules, ions, etc.).
When dissolved in water, hydrochloric acid ionizes, producing free ions H+ and Cl-. When link breakage occurs H - Cl, the hydrogen electron gets the chlorine. For this reason, hydrogen takes charge +1, and chlorine takes charge -1.
In the ionization of acids with more than one hydrogen atom, for each broken bond, the originating anion assumes an additional negative charge. Take the example:
When dissolved in water, sulfuric acid ionizes, producing free ions. H+ and (ONLY4)2-. The originating anion takes charge -2because two ions are released H+ in acid ionization.
Acids are molecular compounds that ionize in the presence of water, releasing cation H+ in the solution.