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Do you know of ways that help a plant to produce more flowers?

Do you know of ways that help a plant to produce more flowers?


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In Crocus sativus, or saffron crocus, the most commercially important part is the stigma of flowers. Each plant produces one flower (so there is more than one plant in this picture) and each flower has three stigmas (stigmas are red in this picture). What are the possible mechanisms to produce more stigma in a plant for commercial cultivation?


Each species of flowering plant produces a set number of floral parts, more or less. Having three styles and three stigmas per flower is a trait that is determined genetically. Mutations can cause floral parts to be duplicated. Heirloom tomatoes have mutations in the fascicated and locule-number genes, resulting in more locules being produced per fruit. Mutations in the fascicated gene also cause increases in other floral parts, such as petals, sepals, and stamens. If you compare a regular tomato to an heirloom, you'll notice that heirlooms tend to have around 10 petals and sepals compared to a regular tomato's 5.

Now the question is, do such mutations exist for Crocus sativus? A quick Google search didn't turn up anything other than the normal three-stigma flowers, so it doesn't look like such a mutation is common, if it exists at all. My answer to your question is: there is no easy way to get a saffron flower to produce more stigmas, for if such a method existed, everyone would be using it. I don't doubt that a dedicated botanist could come up with something (crossing with a related species, perhaps), but it's not something you can likely accomplish in your home garden.

Edit: User Sleepses found an article where a high-yielding mutant with 5 stigmas was obtained through gamma radiation mutagenesis. I'm not sure whether or not this mutant is for sale commercially, though.


One way getting most attention is re-deriving Crocus sativus again.

Crocus sativus (with autotriploid chromosomes) is derived from Crocus cartwrightianus (diploid). ref for this is https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790319300879

You could breed crocus relatives to have abundant and tasty flower parts. Possible ways without genetic modification could be:

  • grow a genetically variable population of Crocus cartwrightianus, and do mass tasting to find an suitable plant.

  • do a genetic comparison to find the genes that are responsible for the taste, then search through the variable population for plants with that combination of the genes needed.


Plant stems

Plant stems are a significant organ for the majority of plant species. They perform many functions that help plants grow, compete and survive across a huge range of environments. Stems can be either fleshy or go through secondary growth and produce hardened wood.

The length of a stem is composed of nodes and internodes. Nodes are the points on a stem where leaves and new branches grow from. Internodes are all the spaces between nodes. A stem’s tissue consists of three general layers: the epidermis, ground tissue and vascular tissue. Each layer is important for the success of a plant in different ways.


Monitor Pollination

In addition to having to manage the short lifespan of zucchini blossoms, you also will need both male and female flowers open at the same time. Only female flowers set fruit. The male flowers are there strictly for pollinating purposes.

New zucchini plants tend to produce a lot of male flowers at first.   This can be frustrating for gardeners when they see a lot of flowers blooming but no fruits forming. Be patient. Once the plants mature a little, they will start setting flowers of both sexes. And thanks to the early male flowers, there already should be plenty of pollinating insects in the area. You will know you have female flowers when you see tiny fruits directly behind the base of the flower.

If you’re really dedicated to your zucchini harvest, you can always take pollinating matters into your own hands. You can remove the male flowers and dust their pollen onto the female flowers to help ensure good pollination takes place. You can also use an artist's paintbrush to transfer pollen from the male flower on the the female bloom. Moreover, don’t waste those early male flowers. You can still pick them, dip them in batter, and fry them up for a great treat.


Asexual Reproduction

Asexual reproduction is how we can clone the best plant of a species. The Bartlett pear (1770) and the Delicious apple (1870) are still reproduced asexually to obtain the same quality product. Vegetative propagation is a form of reproduction by the leaves, stems, or roots of the parent plant. Asexual reproduction can also be done artificially by cutting, grafting, and layering.

Sweet potatoes, dahlias, and asparagus are all reproduced through tuberous roots. The roots of such plants contain buds that can form leaf shoots under favorable conditions. Potato and ginger are reproduced through stem tubers, the small buds present on the vegetable. Bryophyllum reproduces through leaf margins. If a leaf falls on damp soil, it can give rise to a new plant. Runners like strawberry reproduce through stems. Plants such as cacti reproduce when a part becomes detached from the parent plant. The detached part then starts a life of its own. The new plants produced by vegetative propagation are an exact copy of their parent plants.

Strawberry reproduces through running stems (Photo Credit: Kazakova Maryia/ Shutterstock)

Sexual and asexual reproduction are different adaptations that plants have used to perpetuate their species even in adverse conditions. Plants with flowers use sexual reproduction by attracting various agents of pollination. Plants without flowers rely on stems, leaves, and roots that form buds and produce identical copies!


Dissect a Flower

Introduction
Springtime is when nature appears to come back to life after winter. Trees grow leaves, grass gets green, and flowers sprout, displaying beautiful colors and sometimes spreading a delightful scent. But have you ever looked at a flower in more detail? What parts do flowers consist of? Are all flowers alike? In this activity you will find out by dissecting, or taking apart, a flower piece by piece. How many plant parts do you think you can identify?

Background
Plants that make flowers are known as flowering plants. But do flowers only exist to make plants look pretty? Not quite! Although they can be beautiful to us, flowers are made to attract pollinators for reproduction. This means the flowers are a crucial part of the process in growing seeds to make more plants. If you look closely at a flower, you might see that it is made of many different parts, each of which has a specific purpose.

Some flowering plants have a stem, which is a long stalk that carries water and nutrients and supports the flower. Leaves produce the food for the plant by photosynthesis, a process that helps makes plant food from light, carbon dioxide and water.

When you look at the flower of a flowering plant, the most obvious parts are probably the petals. They can vary in size and shape but are usually brightly colored. Their purpose is to attract the bees and other insects that help to pollinate the plants. You might be surprised to learn that some flowers­&mdashin the botanical world they are called "perfect flowers"&mdashhave male parts and female parts, and each plays an important role during pollination.

The male parts, called stamens, look like long stalks (known as filaments) with a little round shape at their end (called the anther), which contains the plant pollen. This bright yellow or orange dust is what insects carry from one plant to another. Pollination occurs if the pollen gets carried to the female parts of a new flower, called the pistil. The pistil is usually a long stalk located in the center of the flower and is also made up of several parts. Most importantly it contains the ovary at its bottom, which houses the female plant eggs called ovules. When pollen is dropped into the pistil of a flower, the eggs, or ovules, inside the plant ovaries are fertilized. The fertilized ovules then grow into plant seeds, and the ovary becomes the fruit.

As you can see, a flower is much more than just beautiful to look at: it is essential for a plant to create more plants. Take a closer look at the many different plant parts in this activity, and see how they differ from one flower to another!

  • Three different large fresh flowering plants, such as roses, tulips, lilies, petunias, carnations or irises. You will need at least the stem with a flower attached for each of these. Note: Make sure you select "perfect flowers," which have male (stamen) and female (pistil) plant parts, such as those listed above. If you have allergies to certain plants, make sure that you use an alternative.
  • Glass or cup with water
  • Six paper plates
  • Tweezers
  • Scissors
  • Magnifying glass or hand lens (optional)
  • At least one additional (intact) specimen of each of the flower types you chose to dissect (optional)
  • Paper (optional)
  • Colored pencils (optional)
  • Poster-sized paper or poster board (optional)
  • Tape (optional)
  • One or more vegetables or fruits, such as carrots, beets, asparagus, broccoli, cauliflower, tomatoes, apples, peppers, lettuce, peas, corn or cabbage (optional)


Preparation

  • Label each of the paper plates with one plant part ("Stem," "Petal," "Leaf," "Pistil" and "Stamen").
  • Label one extra paper plate "Other."
  • Draw lines onto each paper plate to divide it into three sections.
  • Label each section on each plate with a name of one of the three flowering plants.
  • Carefully look at each of the flowering plants. If you have a magnifying glass, you can use it to examine your plants and their flowers. What does each plant and flower look like?
  • Choose one of your flowering plants, and start your plant dissection. Use your hands, scissors or tweezers and carefully take apart your plant. Which plant parts can you identify?
  • Once you have removed one part of the plant, try to identify it, and place it on the corresponding plate. Put it in the section that is labeled with the right plant name. Can you find a plant part for each plate?
  • If you cannot identify a specific plant part, place it on the "Other" plate.
  • When you have finished taking the first plant apart look at all its different parts. How do different parts within one plant compare?
  • Next repeat the dissection with the remaining two flowering plants. Then compare the plant parts on each paper plate. What do you notice about the same plant part from different flowering plants?
  • Look at all the plant parts that you placed on the "Other" plate. What do you think these plant parts are? How can you find out?
  • Extra: If you have intact specimens of the types of flowers you dissected, examine these to see how all of the plant parts you identified fit together in the whole flower. How do these vary across different types of flowers?
  • Extra: Draw each of your flowering plants on a piece of paper. Color your plant and label each part that you identified.
  • Extra: Make a "plant parts" poster for each plant: Label a piece of paper with the name of one of your plants. Then tape the full flowering plant on one side of the paper. On the other side, tape each plant part into a different section of the paper. Label each plant part, and decorate your poster.
  • Extra: Did you know that some parts of flowering plants are edible? Look at carrots, beets, asparagus, broccoli, cauliflower, tomatoes, apples, peppers, lettuce, peas, corn or cabbage. Can you find out which parts of each plant we usually eat?

Observations and Results
Just from looking at your flowering plants you might have noticed that each plant looks quite different. Obvious differences, for example, are the size or color of a flower. When you dissected the plants, however, you should have been able to identify the same plant parts for each of your plants. Each of them should have had a stem, which might have had some green leaves on it colorful flower petals the female flower part (pistil) at the center of the flower and the male plant parts (stamen) that produce the pollen. When you compare each plant part you might have noticed that they each look very different. A petal, for example, probably looked very different from the stem. This is because each plant part has a specific function, and its appearance is optimized to fulfill that function.

If you compare the same plant parts between different flowers, you might have observed that they looked somewhat similar. They might not have looked exactly the same, but you should have seen that they have the same functional features. Although flower petals can differ in size and color, they are usually brightly colored or shaped in a way to attract pollinators, such as bees. The differences between different flowering plants allow us to identify different plant species.

Cleanup
You can put any remaining intact flowering plants into a jar or vase with water. Discard all the dissected flower parts in your compost or trash. Clean your work area, and wash your hands with water and soap.

This activity brought to you in partnership with Science Buddies


Step 4: Water Deeply and Add Mulch

Thoroughly soak the soil around your newly planted flowers. Garden flowers generally need 1 to 2 inches of moisture every week to perform well, so water if you don&apost receive enough rain. It&aposs best to water deeply and less frequently than shallowly and more often so the roots of the plants grow deeper. Avoid keeping soil waterlogged or the roots of your flowering plants may rot. A layer of mulch like shredded bark around your new plants will help slow down evaporation and reduce how often you need to water.


How Do Plants Reproduce?

Plants either reproduce sexually or asexually, depending on the type of plant. In sexual reproduction, two germ cells, or gametes, fuse to create the beginning of a genetically unique offspring. In asexual reproduction, a plant cell splits in two to create a genetically identical offspring.

During sexual reproduction, a male gamete needs to fertilize a female gamete. Depending on the plant, this is accomplished in a variety of ways. In flowering plants, the male and female gametes are located on different parts of the same flower. The sperm, located in the pollen grains, fall on the carpel of the flower, where the female gametes are located. This process occurs because of wind pollination or insect pollination that transports the pollen grains to the female gametes. As a result of this pollination, a fruit is created, which contains the seeds of offspring. In mosses, sexual reproduction can only occur if the male and female plant gametes combine directly. Conifers have two different cones: a male and a female cone. The male cone gives off pollen that the female cone catches.

Asexual reproduction occurs either through vegetative reproduction or apomixis. Vegetative reproduction occurs when a plant's shoots, roots and, sometimes, leaves fall onto moist dirt and take root. In apomixis, unfertilized plant seeds are used to create more offspring. Although asexual reproduction among plants occurs, sexual reproduction is far more common in most plant species.


Do you know of ways that help a plant to produce more flowers? - Biology

Plants are made up of meristematic and permanent tissues and are supported by shoot and root organ systems.

Learning Objectives

Differentiate among the types of plant tissues and organs

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • There are two types of plant tissues: meristematic tissue found in plant regions of continuous cell division and growth, and permanent (or non-meristematic) tissue consisting of cells that are no longer actively dividing.
  • Meristems produce cells that differentiate into three secondary tissue types: dermal tissue which covers and protects the plant, vascular tissue which transports water, minerals, and sugars and ground tissue which serves as a site for photosynthesis, supports vascular tissue, and stores nutrients.
  • Vascular tissue is made of xylem tissue which transports water and nutrients from the roots to different parts of the plant and phloem tissue which transports organic compounds from the site of photosynthesis to other parts of the plant.
  • The xylem and phloem always lie next to each other forming a structure called a vascular bundle in stems and a vascular stele or vascular cylinder in roots.
  • Parts of the shoot system include the vegetative parts, such as the leaves and the stems, and the reproductive parts, such as the flowers and fruits.

Key Terms

  • meristem: the plant tissue composed of totipotent cells that allows plant growth
  • parenchyma: the ground tissue making up most of the non-woody parts of a plant
  • xylem: a vascular tissue in land plants primarily responsible for the distribution of water and minerals taken up by the roots also the primary component of wood
  • phloem: a vascular tissue in land plants primarily responsible for the distribution of sugars and nutrients manufactured in the shoot
  • tracheid: elongated cells in the xylem of vascular plants that serve in the transport of water and mineral salts

Plant Tissues

Plants are multicellular eukaryotes with tissue systems made of various cell types that carry out specific functions. Plant tissue systems fall into one of two general types: meristematic tissue and permanent (or non-meristematic) tissue. Cells of the meristematic tissue are found in meristems, which are plant regions of continuous cell division and growth. Meristematic tissue cells are either undifferentiated or incompletely differentiated they continue to divide and contribute to the growth of the plant. In contrast, permanent tissue consists of plant cells that are no longer actively dividing.

Meristematic tissues consist of three types, based on their location in the plant. Apical meristems contain meristematic tissue located at the tips of stems and roots, which enable a plant to extend in length. Lateral meristems facilitate growth in thickness or girth in a maturing plant. Intercalary meristems occur only in monocots at the bases of leaf blades and at nodes (the areas where leaves attach to a stem). This tissue enables the monocot leaf blade to increase in length from the leaf base for example, it allows lawn grass leaves to elongate even after repeated mowing.

Meristems produce cells that quickly differentiate, or specialize, and become permanent tissue. Such cells take on specific roles and lose their ability to divide further. They differentiate into three main types: dermal, vascular, and ground tissue. Dermal tissue covers and protects the plant. Vascular tissue transports water, minerals, and sugars to different parts of the plant. Ground tissue serves as a site for photosynthesis, provides a supporting matrix for the vascular tissue, and helps to store water and sugars.

Plant tissues are either simple (composed of similar cell types) or complex (composed of different cell types). Dermal tissue, for example, is a simple tissue that covers the outer surface of the plant and controls gas exchange. Vascular tissue is an example of a complex tissue. It is made of two specialized conducting tissues: xylem and phloem. Xylem tissue transports water and nutrients from the roots to different parts of the plant. It includes three different cell types: vessel elements and tracheids (both of which conduct water) and xylem parenchyma. Phloem tissue, which transports organic compounds from the site of photosynthesis to other parts of the plant, consists of four different cell types: sieve cells (which conduct photosynthates), companion cells, phloem parenchyma, and phloem fibers. Unlike xylem-conducting cells, phloem-conducting cells are alive at maturity. The xylem and phloem always lie adjacent to each other. In stems, the xylem and the phloem form a structure called a vascular bundle in roots, this is termed the vascular stele or vascular cylinder.

Cross section of a squash stem showing a vascular bundle: This light micrograph shows a cross section of a squash (Curcurbita maxima) stem. Each teardrop-shaped vascular bundle consists of large xylem vessels toward the inside and smaller phloem cells toward the outside. Xylem cells, which transport water and nutrients from the roots to the rest of the plant, are dead at functional maturity. Phloem cells, which transport sugars and other organic compounds from photosynthetic tissue to the rest of the plant, are living. The vascular bundles are encased in ground tissue and surrounded by dermal tissue.

Plant Organ Systems

In plants, just as in animals, similar cells working together form a tissue. When different types of tissues work together to perform a unique function, they form an organ organs working together form organ systems. Vascular plants have two distinct organ systems: a shoot system and a root system. The shoot system consists of two portions: the vegetative (non-reproductive) parts of the plant, such as the leaves and the stems and the reproductive parts of the plant, which include flowers and fruits. The shoot system generally grows above ground, where it absorbs the light needed for photosynthesis. The root system, which supports the plants and absorbs water and minerals, is usually underground.

Example plant organ systems: The shoot system of a plant consists of leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. The root system anchors the plant while absorbing water and minerals from the soil.


Additional Factors for No Tomato Fruit

Another factor for limiting tomato fruit set is improper tomato spacing. If you plant them too close, they will produce few tomatoes and are more susceptible to disease. In fact, fungal diseases, like botrytis, can actually cause blooms to drop and result in no fruit. Tomato plants should be spaced at least 2 feet (60 cm.) apart.

Looking for additional tips on growing perfect tomatoes? Download our FREE Tomato Growing Guide and learn how to grow delicious tomatoes.


Considerations

Two common problems afflicting tomatoes develop at the point where the fruit is attached to what is left of the original flower. Catfacing, producing fruit resembling a cat's face, is the result of a defect in the flower during its formation and is most likely the result of an excess of nitrogen in the soil or setting the tomato plants out before the ground has warmed to at least 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Blossom end rot is a fungus usually caused by excessive moisture, premature planting in cold soil, and incomplete absorption of calcium from the soil. It produces fruit that decays from the blossom end. In many cases, the tomatoes aren't necessarily a total loss, as the affected parts can be cut off and the rest of the fruit used.


Watch the video: Προστασία φυτών με σπιτικά υλικά για έντομα, τετράνυχο, σαλιγκάρια και ασθένειες (July 2022).


Comments:

  1. Farley

    I'm sorry, this is not exactly what I need.

  2. Ghassan

    Maybe I'm wrong.

  3. Nira

    I do not see in it sense.

  4. Bakinos

    All not so is simple

  5. Garen

    I absolutely agree with you. I think this is a great idea. I agree with you.



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